Sports Medicine, 2018, Vol.48(8), pp.1971-1985
Background Sport-related concussion and repetitive head impact exposure in contact sports continue to receive increased attention in public and medical spheres. The Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium, a multicenter cooperative, was established to study the natural history of concussion in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) collegiate student-athletes across 29 colleges and universities in the United States. The purpose of this investigation is to provide normative data from the CARE Consortium and evaluate for differences between sport categories. Methods NCAA student-athletes were evaluated annually for general demographics and sport-specific characteristics before the start of the competitive season. We collected demographic and medical history information and evaluated each student-athlete's neurocognitive function, neurological status, postural stability, and self-reported symptoms. Sports were categorized by the amount of contact typically associated with the sport (i.e., contact, limited contact, non-contact). Comparisons between the three sport categories for the evaluated variables were made using linear or zero inflated negative binomial regression models adjusted for gender, concussion history, and household income. Results Over a 2-year period (August 2014-July 2016), 15,681 NCAA athletes completed preseason evaluations. Overall, 53% of the athletes were in the contact sport group, 31% were in the limited contact group and 17% were in the non-contact group. After adjusting for covariates, there were statistically significant differences found between athlete groups, although the differences and effect sizes were small and not clinically significant. The contact sport group had better scores on Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment Testing (ImPACT®) visual and verbal memory, Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) symptom checklist, and Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18), but slower ImPACT reaction time and worse scores on Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC). Further, the data indicate that some ImPACT score distributions were noticeably different from those presented in the technical manual. Conclusions In this large, racially and socio-economically diverse cohort of male and female college athletes, we found no evidence that student-athletes participating in contact sports have clinically meaningful deficits in preseason cognitive and balance testing. They also did not report significantly more symptoms of psychological distress when compared with student-athletes in non-contact or limited contact sports. In addition, the data suggest potential limitations when using published ImPACT norms when evaluating injured athletes.
United States–Us ; Gender Differences ; Students ; Cognition ; Consortia ; Colleges & Universities ; Injury Prevention ; Medical Research ; Posture ; Demographics ; Reaction Time ; Brain Research ; Regression Analysis ; Regression Models ; Concussion ; Athletes ; Norms ; Cognitive Ability ; Statistical Analysis ; Contact Sports ; Pediatrics ; Concussion ; Memory ; Ultrasonic Testing ; College Football ; Consortia ; Data Collection ; Demography ; Stability Analysis ; Athletes ; Family Income ; Cognitive Ability ; Sports Injuries ; Traumatic Brain Injury ; Athletes ; Colleges & Universities ; National Collegiate Athletic Association–Ncaa;
View full text in Springer (Subscribers only)