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  • Springer (CrossRef)  (19)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: World Journal of Urology, 2016, Vol.34(1), pp.1-2
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-015-1755-5 Byline: Peter C. Black (1), Wassim Kassouf (2) Author Affiliation: (1) Department of Urologic Sciences, Vancouver Prostate Centre, University of British Columbia, Level 6, 2775 Laurel St, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1M9, Canada (2) Department of Surgery (Urology), McGill University Health Center, 1001 Decarie Blvd, D02.7210, Montreal, QC, H4A 3J1, Canada Article History: Registration Date: 21/12/2015 Online Date: 07/01/2016
    Keywords: Bladder Cancer;
    ISSN: 0724-4983
    E-ISSN: 1433-8726
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Supportive Care in Cancer, 2011, Vol.19(8), pp.1117-1124
    Description: Byline: Katherine Regan Sterba (1), Richard J. Swartz (2), Karen Basen-Engquist (3), Peter C. Black (4), Curtis A. Pettaway (5) Keywords: Prostate cancer; Quality of life; Partners; Symptoms Abstract: Purpose We examined quality of life in spouses of men in the Post-Adjuvant Androgen Deprivation trial after radical prostatectomy. Methods Men at high risk of prostate cancer recurrence were randomized to receive androgen deprivation therapy or observation. Forty-three couples completed telephone interviews every 6 months for 2 years assessing women's mood disturbance, mental and physical health, and sexual function and bother as well as men's symptoms and sociodemographic and marital variables. We used linear mixed modeling to explore relationships between wives' quality of life and time, treatment group, and men's symptoms. Results Women's mental health functioning improved over time (p〈0.05). Furthermore, women with husbands in the observation group had worse mood disturbance (p=0.01) and poorer mental health (p=0.02) than women with husbands in treatment. Men's symptoms were associated with worse physical health in wives (p=0.02). Women also reported worse sexual function at 18 and 24 months compared with baseline (p=0.02), but ratings of sexual bother were unrelated to time, treatment, and symptoms. Conclusions These exploratory results are consistent with research demonstrating that spousal cancer-related distress decreases over time. Treatment group differences suggest that an examination of caregiving in the context of uncertainty is warranted. Also, the physical burden of caregiving may intensify when men have more symptoms. To inform interventions, future studies should clarify how treatment and symptoms influence wives' distress by examining expectations and communication. Author Affiliation: (1) Department of Medicine, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina, MSC 955, Charleston, SC, 29425-9550, USA (2) Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1400 Pressler St., Houston, TX, 77030, USA (3) Department of Behavioral Science, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, P. O. Box 1330, Houston, TX, 77030, USA (4) Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Level 6, 2775 Laurel St., Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1M9, Canada (5) Department of Urology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX, 77030, USA Article History: Registration Date: 11/05/2010 Received Date: 03/09/2009 Accepted Date: 11/05/2010 Online Date: 25/05/2010
    Keywords: Prostate cancer ; Quality of life ; Partners ; Symptoms
    ISSN: 0941-4355
    E-ISSN: 1433-7339
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Current Urology Reports, Dec, 2018, Vol.19(12), p.1(13)
    Description: Byline: Timo K. Nykopp (1,2), Jose Batista da Costa (2), Miles Mannas (2), Peter C. Black (2) Keywords: Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer; Clinical trial; BCG-unresponsive; BCG-naive Abstract: Purpose of Review As our molecular understanding of bladder cancer continues to advance, more and more novel agents are entering clinical trials across the spectrum of bladder cancer stages. The clinical trial activity for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has been boosted further by the evolution of specific disease states that set more uniform inclusion criteria for clinical trial design. Here, we aimed to review the current clinical trials landscape in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer with respect to these disease states. Recent Findings Most active clinical trials focus on high-risk NMIBC in either the BCG-naive or BCG-unresponsive setting. Strict criteria to define the disease state and a clear pathway to drug registration have encouraged trials for patients with BCG-unresponsive NMIBC. The most promising potential breakthroughs for BCG-naive patients include alternative BCG strains, immune-priming with intradermal BCG vaccination, and systemic immune checkpoint blockade. The latter therapy is also being actively investigated in multiple trials in BCG-unresponsive NMIBC, along with novel viral agents such as INSTILADRIN (nadofaragene firadenovec) and targeted agents such as oportuzumab monatox. Summary After many years of relative stagnation, multiple new therapies currently under investigation in well-designed clinical trials appear poised for routine clinical implementation in the near future. These therapies should dramatically improve the outcome of patients with NMIBC. We can look forward to the challenges of biomarker-driven drug selection, optimal drug sequencing, and rational combination therapies. Author Affiliation: (1) 0000 0001 0726 2490, grid.9668.1, Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland (2) 0000 0001 2288 9830, grid.17091.3e, Vancouver Prostate Centre, Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Level 6, 2775 Laurel St, Vancouver, BC, V6N 2W6, Canada Article History: Registration Date: 08/10/2018 Online Date: 24/10/2018 Article note: This article is part of the Topical Collection on Urothelial Cancer
    Keywords: Medical Research ; Bladder Cancer ; Clinical Trials ; Vaccination
    ISSN: 1527-2737
    E-ISSN: 15346285
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Pediatrics, 2007, Vol.166(11), pp.1135-1142
    Description: Analysis of the recovery period following physical exercise has gained importance in evaluating cardiopulmonary capacity, not only in athletes but also in patients with proven or suspected heart failure. The purpose of this study was to apply these methods to long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in childhood, who are at risk of developing anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy. Nine children (mean age 12 years) and 10 adults (mean age 24 years) were included in the study after treatment for childhood ALL. Recovery of oxygen uptake and heart rate following maximal spiroergometric exercise was compared to that in 29 trained and untrained age-matched controls. The change in oxygen uptake (ΔVO 2 ) and heart rate (ΔHR) between maximal effort and 60 s of recovery did not differ significantly, either between children after oncological therapy (ΔVO 2 : 14.95 ml/kg, ΔHR: 35 bpm) and healthy children (ΔVO 2 : 15.85 ml/kg, ΔHR: 37 bpm), or between adult former oncological patients (ΔVO 2 : 13.1 ml/kg, ΔHR: 27 bpm) and untrained adults (ΔVO 2 : 15.7 ml/kg, ΔHR: 31 bpm). There was, however, a significant difference in ΔVO 2 between trained adults (ΔVO 2 : 24.5 ml/kg) and both untrained adult controls (ΔVO 2 : 15.7 ml/kg, p  = 0.004) and adult patients (ΔVO 2 : 13.1 ml/kg, p  = 0.0002). This difference was not detected for heart rate. In conclusion, the recovery period did not reveal a discernible difference in cardiopulmonary capacity between former ALL patients and untrained age-matched controls. We did confirm that heart rate and oxygen uptake recovery serve as indicators of physical fitness.
    Keywords: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia ; Anthracycline ; Oxygen uptake ; Physical fitness ; Recovery
    ISSN: 0340-6199
    E-ISSN: 1432-1076
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, 2007, Vol.26(3), pp.623-634
    Description: In the majority of cases, death from bladder cancer results from metastatic disease. Understanding the closely linked mechanisms of invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis in bladder cancer has allowed us to develop new therapeutic strategies that harbor the promise of decisive improvements in patient survival. The essential link between cell based experiments and the translation of novel agents into human patients with bladder cancer is the animal model. With emphasis on the orthotopic xenograft model, this review outlines some key mechanisms relevant to angiogenesis and the development of metastasis in bladder cancer. We highlight especially pathways related to MMP-9, IL-8, VEGF and EGFR. Most commonly, expression patterns of these markers in patients have correlated to disease progression and patient survival, which has led to laboratory investigations of these markers and eventually novel targeted therapies that are translated back into the clinic by means of clinical trials. Although imperfect in their translatability into clinical efficacy, animal models remain a critical tool in bladder cancer research.
    Keywords: Bladder cancer ; EGFR ; MMP-9 ; IL-8 ; VEGF ; Metastasis
    ISSN: 0167-7659
    E-ISSN: 1573-7233
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Conservation Genetics, 2011, Vol.12(2), pp.423-431
    Description: We investigated the phylogeography and subspecies classification of the ostrich ( Struthio camelus ) by assessing patterns of variation in mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA-CR) sequence and across fourteen nuclear microsatellite loci. The current consensus taxonomy of S. camelus names five subspecies based on morphology, geographic range, mtDNA restriction fragment length polymorphism and mtDNA-CR sequence analysis: S. c. camelus , S. c. syriacus , S. c. molybdephanes , S. c. massaicus and S. c. australis . We expanded a previous mtDNA dataset from 18 individual mtDNA-CR sequences to 123 sequences, including sequences from all five subspecies. Importantly, these additional sequences included 43 novel sequences of the red-necked ostrich, S. c. camelus , obtained from birds from Niger. Phylogeographic reconstruction of these sequences matches previous results, with three well-supported clades containing S. c. camelus/syriacus , S. c. molybdophanes , and S. c. massaicus/australis , respectively. The 14 microsatellite loci assessed for 119 individuals of four subspecies (all but S. c. syriacus ) showed considerable variation, with an average of 13.4 (±2.0) alleles per locus and a mean observed heterozygosity of 55.7 (±5.3)%. These data revealed high levels of variation within most subspecies, and a structure analysis revealed strong separation between each of the four subspecies. The level of divergence across both marker types suggests the consideration of separate species status for S. c. molybdophanes , and perhaps also for S. c. camelus/syriacus . Both the mtDNA-CR and microsatellite analyzes also suggest that there has been no recent hybridization between the subspecies. These findings are of importance for management of the highly endangered red-necked subspecies ( S. c. camelus ) and may warrant its placement onto the IUCN red list of threatened animals.
    Keywords: Struthio camelus ; Ostrich ; Africa ; Mitochondrial DNA control region ; Phylogeography ; Microsatellites
    ISSN: 1566-0621
    E-ISSN: 1572-9737
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: World journal of urology, May 2016, Vol.34(5), pp.695-701
    Description: Several disease characteristics have been identified as potential predictors for pathological node involvement (pN+) following radical cystectomy (RC). However, these have not been assessed in patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). We endeavored to assess factors predicting adverse pathology in clinically node-negative patients treated with NAC and RC. Patients from four North American institutions with cT2-4aN0M0 UC who received three or four cycles of NAC followed by RC were selected. Logistic regression was used to predict pN+, 〈pT2 and pT4 disease. One hundred and ninety-six patients were included. The clinical stage was cT2 in 115 (61 %), cT3 in 62 (33 %) and cT4 in 12 (6 %) cases. NAC regiments were gemcitabine-cisplatin (GC)-4 cycles 57 (29 %), GC-3 cycles 77 (39 %), methotrexate, vinblastine, adriamycin, cisplatin (MVAC)-3 cycle 22 (11 %) and MVAC-4 cycles 40 (21 %). pN+ was seen in 35 (18 %) patients. In the logistic regression analysis, cT4 stage (OR 7.50; 95 % CI 1.58-33.3) and three compared to four cycles of GC (OR 3.44; 95 % CI 1.09-10.9) were significant predictors of pN+ status. Additionally, when controlling for clinical stage, three cycles of GC, compared to four, were significantly associated with higher rates of pT4 disease and lower rates of downstaging to non-muscle-invasive disease. The results suggest that four cycles of neoadjuvant GC may be superior to three cycles, and the latter regimen may be associated with adverse pathological findings. Although this would require validation in a prospective trial, it does encourage the completion of the conventional four cycles GC whenever possible.
    Keywords: Cystectomy ; Neoadjuvant Therapy ; Pathology ; Prognosis ; Urinary Bladder Neoplasms ; Cystectomy ; Antineoplastic Agents -- Therapeutic Use ; Cisplatin -- Therapeutic Use ; Postoperative Complications -- Epidemiology ; Urinary Bladder Neoplasms -- Drug Therapy
    ISSN: 07244983
    E-ISSN: 1433-8726
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: World Journal of Urology, 2017, Vol.35(11), pp.1729-1736
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-017-2065-x Byline: Homayoun Zargar (1), Jay B. Shah (2), Elisabeth E. Fransen van de Putte (3), Kylea R. Potvin (4), Kamran Zargar-Shoshtari (5), Bas W. van Rhijn (3), Siamak Daneshmand (6), Jeff M. Holzbeierlein (7), Philippe E. Spiess (5), Eric Winquist (4), Simon Horenblas (3), Colin Dinney (2), Peter C. Black (1), Wassim Kassouf (8) Keywords: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy; ddMVAC; Accelerated MVAC; Cystectomy; Complete pathologic response; Partial pathologic response; Urothelial cancer Abstract: Purpose Our primary endpoint was to assess pathological response rate (pT0N0 and a[currency]pT1N0) for patients with BCa treated with the accelerated or dose dense MVAC (ddMVAC) chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy (RC) in this real-word multi-institutional cohort. Materials and methods We retrospectively reviewed records of patients with urothelial cancer who underwent ddMVAC and RC at seven contributing institutions from 2000 to 2015. Patients with cT2--4a, M0 BCa were included. Presence of cT3--4 disease, hydronephrosis, lymphovascular invasion and/or existence of sarcomatoid, or micropapillary features on the initial transurethral resection of bladder tumor specimen was defined as high-risk disease. Logistic regression models for prediction of pT0N0 and a[currency]pT1N0 were generated for the entire cohort as well as for the cN0 subgroup. The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model for survival using post RC data was used to assess hazard ratios (HRs) for the variables of interest. Results A total of 345 patients received ddMVAC chemotherapy during the study period 85% had high-risk features. The median number of chemotherapy cycles was 4 (IQR 4-4) 〉90% of patients completed all scheduled cycles. The observed rates of pT0N0 and a[currency]pT1N0 were 30.4 and 49.3%, respectively, among cN0 patients. On the multivariable regression model, the presence of more than one clinical high-risk element was associated with 70% [OR 0.30 95% CI (0.10--0.86) p = 0.02] reduction in the odds of achieving partial pathological response. Conclusions A complete response (pT0N0) was observed in one-third of patients after neoadjuvant ddMVAC therapy, and a partial response (a[currency]pT1N0) was observed in nearly half of the cases in this real-world experience with this regimen. To our knowledge, this represents the largest experience outside clinical trial settings. Author Affiliation: (1) Vancouver Prostate Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada (2) Department of Urology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA (3) Department of Urology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (4) Division of Medical Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, Western University, London, ON, Canada (5) Department of Genitourinary Oncology, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA (6) USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institute of Urology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA (7) Department of Urology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas, KS, USA (8) Department of Surgery (Division of Urology), McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Canada Article History: Registration Date: 13/06/2017 Received Date: 02/12/2016 Accepted Date: 13/06/2017 Online Date: 17/06/2017
    Keywords: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy ; ddMVAC ; Accelerated MVAC ; Cystectomy ; Complete pathologic response ; Partial pathologic response ; Urothelial cancer
    ISSN: 0724-4983
    E-ISSN: 1433-8726
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: World Journal of Urology, 2006, Vol.24(5), pp.531-542
    Description: The 30–45% failure rate after radical cystoprostatectomy mandates that we explore and optimize multimodal therapy to achieve better disease control in these patients. Cisplatin-based multi-agent combination chemotherapy has been used with success in metastatic disease and has therefore also been introduced in patients with high-risk but non-metastatic bladder cancer. There is now convincing evidence that chemotherapy given pre-operatively can improve survival in these patients. In this review we establish the need for peri-operative chemotherapy in bladder cancer patients and summarize the evidence for the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The advantages and disadvantages of neoadjuvant versus adjuvant chemotherapy are discussed, and the main shortcomings of both—treatment-related toxicity and the inability to prospectively identify likely responders—are presented. Finally, a risk-adapted approach to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is presented, whereby the highest risk patients are offered treatment while those unlikely to benefit are spared the treatment-related toxicity.
    Keywords: Bladder cancer ; Chemotherapy ; Cystectomy ; Neoadjuvant ; Adjuvant
    ISSN: 0724-4983
    E-ISSN: 1433-8726
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Current Urology Reports, 2008, Vol.9(1), pp.55-61
    Description: Growth factors and their receptors are significant to the biology of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. In this context, characterization of gene expression, amplification, and mutation has established the relevance of receptors as potential targets of novel therapeutic agents. Because these characteristics vary across disease states, they may serve as prognostic indicators of recurrence, progression, response to therapy, and mortality. This review focuses on the prognostic value of the human epidermal growth factor receptor family, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human EGFR-2 (HER2), HER3, HER4, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), and fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR3). EGFR and HER2 seem to indicate a poor prognosis, and HER4 and FGFR3 appear to be favorable prognostic indicators. However, validation studies are required to answer many remaining questions.
    Keywords: Bladder Cancer -- Diagnosis ; Growth Factor Receptors -- Health Aspects ; Growth Factors -- Health Aspects;
    ISSN: 1527-2737
    E-ISSN: 1534-6285
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