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  • Springer (CrossRef)  (64)
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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics, 1994, Vol.19(3), pp.253-6
    Description: Nanoparticles are colloidal polymeric particles (size 〈 1000 nm) to which drugs are bound by sorption, incorporation, or chemical binding. After intravenous injection they normally distribute into the organs of the reticuloendothelial system (liver, spleen, lungs, bone marrow). However, their body distribution can be altered by coating with surfactants or with physiological components such as serum complement factors. The influence of these coatings on the body distribution and possible mechanisms for the alteration of this distribution are discussed. Differently coated nanoparticles can be used for the targeting of bound drugs to tumors, to the brain, and to inflamed areas in the body.
    Keywords: Drug Carriers ; Polymers -- Administration & Dosage
    ISSN: 0378-7966
    E-ISSN: 21070180
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Infection, 7/1991, Vol.19(S4), pp.S224-S228
    ISSN: 0300-8126
    E-ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer (via CrossRef)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, 2007, Vol.60(4), pp.467-477
    Description: Byline: U. Koehl (1), G. Hollatz (1), E. Rohrbach (1), K. Visschedyk (1), J. Cinatl (2), B. Kornhuber (5), J. Kreuter (4), E. Mutschler (3), D. Schwabe (5) Keywords: Ara-C; Pharmacokinetics; Ara-CTP; High pressure liquid chromatography; Acute lymhoblastic leukemia Abstract: Purpose The prodrug cytosinearabinoside (ara-C) is widely used in the treatment of acute leukemias. The active drug is the intracellular metabolite cytosine-arabinoside-5 -triphosphate (ara-CTP). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between sensitivity and pharmacokinetic parameters C .sub.max, t 1/2 .sub.and AUC of ara-CTP. The obtained results were compared to previous studies. Experimental design C .sub.max, t 1/2 .sub.and AUC of ara-CTP were assessed in leukemic cells of 17 pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and in 6 lymphoblastic cell lines and compared with normal lymphocytes of 9 healthy donors by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The sensitivity of the cells against ara-C was determined by the MTT assay. Results The intracellular accumulation of ara-CTP was significantly lower in normal lymphocytes (C .sub.max 47.7--60.9 pmol/10.sup.6 cells) compared to leukemic cell lines (C .sub.max 11--1128 pmol/10.sup.6 cells) and leukemic cells of our patients (C .sub.max 85.9--631 pmol/10.sup.6 cells). Similar results were found for the AUC. There was no significant difference between initial and relapsed leukemias in our small cohort. A correlation between sensitivity in terms of IC.sub.50 values and the intracellular ara-CTP accumulation was observed in cell lines, but not in leukemic cells and normal lymphocytes from healthy donors. Conclusions Pharmacokinetic parameters varied tremendously in leukemic cells in contrast to normal lymphocytes without a difference in sensitivity. It is worthwhile to compare literature data to assess an optimal dosage of ara-C in pediatric patients. Author Affiliation: (1) Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Laboratory for Stem Cell Transplantation and Immunotherapy, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60596, Frankfurt a. M., Germany (2) Department of Medical Virology, Centre of Hygiene, Frankfurt a. M., Germany (3) Department of Pharmacology, Biocenter Niederursel, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt a. M., Germany (4) Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Biocenter Niederursel, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt a. M., Germany (5) Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60596, Frankfurt a. M., Germany Article History: Registration Date: 02/11/2006 Received Date: 21/07/2006 Accepted Date: 31/10/2006 Online Date: 14/12/2006
    Keywords: Ara-C ; Pharmacokinetics ; Ara-CTP ; High pressure liquid chromatography ; Acute lymhoblastic leukemia
    ISSN: 0344-5704
    E-ISSN: 1432-0843
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 1995, Vol.6(4), pp.201-205
    Description: The in vitro biocompatibility of newly developed wound dressings consisting of different chitosan salts (chitosan lactate, glutamate and chloride) and a chitosan derivative (methylpyroolidinone chitosan) was compared with three commercially available wound dressings made of collagen, calciumalginate, and gelatin, by evaluation in a fibroblast cell culture system. Three experimental models which reflect relevant stages of wound healing were used, and the significant influence of the experimental setting on the results was demonstrated. Collagen and methylpyrrolidinone chitosan were the most compatible materials under the investigated test conditions. Chitosan chloride and glutamate were the least compatible substances. The results indicated that wound dressings made of chitosan lactate and methylpyrrolidinone chitosan as well as the three commercially available dressings are well tolerated.
    Keywords: Biomaterial ; Biokompatibilität ; Gewebeverträglichkeit ; Heilung (Medizin) ; In-Vitro-Untersuchung ; Kollagen ; Fibroblasten ; Zellkultur ; Objektvergleich ; Vergleichsmessung ; Verbandmaterial ; Gelatine ; Medicine ; Engineering;
    ISSN: 0957-4530
    E-ISSN: 1573-4838
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  • 5
    Language: German
    In: Der Hautarzt, 2010, Vol.61(7), pp.593-597
    Description: Byline: S. Reich-Schupke (1,1972), J. Kurscheidt (1,1972), C. Appelhans (1,1972), A. Kreuter (1,1972), P. Altmeyer (1,1972), M. Stucker (1,1972) Keywords: Ulcus cruris; Kontaktallergie; Moderne Wundtherapie; Unterschenkelekzem; Epikutantestung; Leg ulcer; Contact allergy; Modern wound therapy; Eczema of the leg; Patch test Abstract (German): Hintergrund Patienten mit einem Ulcus cruris haben haufig Kontaktsensibilisierungen. Moderne Wundauflagen werden oft als hypoallergen proklamiert. Ziel Untersuchung des Sensibilisierungsspektrums von Ulkuspatienten hinsichtlich wundrelevanter Kontaktstoffe und insbesondere moderner Wundprodukte. Material und Methoden Es wurden 95 Patienten mit einem Ulcus cruris mit DKG-Reihen und einer Reihe haufig verwendeter Wundprodukte mittels Epikutantestung (ECT) getestet. Ergebnisse Mindestens eine positive ECT-Reaktion hatten 61% der Patienten. Die haufigsten Reaktionen fanden sich fur tert. Butylhydrochinon, Polyvidon-Jod, Perubalsam, ein Hydrogel, Duftstoffmix I, Duftstoffmix II, Amerchol L101 und Gentamicin. Insgesamt gab es 14 Reaktionen auf Produkte der modernen Wundversorgung. Die hochsten Sensibilisierungsraten waren dabei fur Hydrokolloide und Hydrogele nachweisbar. Patienten mit Sensibilisierungen gegen moderne Wundauflagen wiesen insgesamt signifikant mehr positive Testreaktionen auf. Schlussfolgerungen Bei Patienten mit Ulcus cruris gibt es nicht selten Sensibilisierungen gegenuber modernen Wundprodukten, v. a. Hydrogelen. Sie sollten auch in der Diagnostik berucksichtigt werden. Abstract: Background Patients with leg ulcers often have contact sensitizations. Modern wound care products claim low allergic potential. Object To analyze the patch test results in leg ulcer patients with focus on modern care wound products. Material and Methods 95 leg ulcer patients were tested with the standard German patch test series as well as frequently used wound care products. Results 61% of the patients had at least one positive reaction. Most frequent reactions were seen with tert-butylhydroquinone, povidone iodine, balsam of Peru, a hydrogel, fragrance mix I and II, Amerchol L101 and gentamicin. There were 14 reactions to modern wound care products with highest sensitization rates for hydrocolloids and hydrogels. Patients sensitized to wound care products had significantly more positive patch test reactions. Conclusion There are sensitisations against modern wound care products, especially hydrogels. That should be considered in patch test of leg ulcer patients. Author Affiliation: (11972) Klinik fur Dermatologie und Allergologie, Ruhr Universitat Bochum, Gudrunstr. 56, 44791, Bochum, Deutschland Article History: Registration Date: 20/04/2010 Online Date: 13/06/2010
    Keywords: Leg ulcer ; Contact allergy ; Modern wound therapy ; Eczema of the leg ; Patch test
    ISSN: 0017-8470
    E-ISSN: 1432-1173
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine, 2008, Vol.145(2), pp.259-262
    Description: The study examined the antiparkinsonian effect of nerve growth factor adsorbed on the surface of polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles coated with polysorbate-80 surfactant. The parkinsonian syndrome in C57B1/6 mice was provoked by intraperitoneal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. The basic symptoms of the parkinsonian syndrome decreased under the action of the nerve growth factor adsorbed on nanoparticles coated with polysorbate-80, which was seen from decreased rigidity and increased locomotor activity compared to control mice receiving with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine alone. This effect of nerve growth factor on nanoparticles persisted after 7 and 21 days after single injection of the neurotoxin. These data attest to the possibility of using nanoparticles prepared from amphiphilic polymers and coated with polysorbate-80 for the delivery of nerve growth factor into the brain during systemic treatment.
    Keywords: nerve growth factor ; polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles coated with polysorbate-80 ; 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine ; Parkinsonian disease
    ISSN: 0007-4888
    E-ISSN: 1573-8221
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, 2008, Vol.42(6), pp.363-367
    Description: Polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles represent a potential system for delivering medicinal agents. The present report describes development of a method for radiation sterilization of medicinal formulations of doxorubicin based on polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles. The physicochemical properties of the medicinal formulation were studied after gamma irradiation and irradiation with accelerated electrons over the dose range 10–35 kGy. The chemical structure of doxorubicin and the polymer carrier was found to be intact after irradiation at a dose of 25 kGy. Irradiation at these doses also had no effect on the colloidal properties of polymer nanoparticles, which retained their stability to aggregation and sedimentation. The optimum sterilizing dose was 15 kGy.
    Keywords: Pharmacy ; Organic Chemistry ; Pharmacology/Toxicology ; Pharmacy ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology ; Chemistry;
    ISSN: 0091-150X
    E-ISSN: 1573-9031
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Medical microbiology and immunology, 04 July 1978, Vol.165(2), pp.111-7
    Description: Nanocapsules from a copolymer of polymethylmethacrylate and polyacrylamide were tested for adjuvant activity in mouse protection experiments with inactivated influenza virus as antigen. Viruses were either adsorbed on the capsules after polymerization or added to the monomers and incorporated by copolymerization after X-ray initiation. Both preparations showed enhanced immunity as compared to fluid vaccine, if the adjuvant content was 1%. The adjuvant effect was comparable to that caused by the mineral adjuvant Al(OH)3. After dilution of the polymer the adjuvant effect was lost. Such synthetic polymers at suitable concentrations could serve as alternatives to mineral adjuvants.
    Keywords: Adjuvants, Immunologic ; Influenza Vaccines ; Vaccines, Attenuated ; Acrylamides -- Pharmacology ; Influenza A Virus -- Immunology ; Methylmethacrylates -- Pharmacology ; Orthomyxoviridae Infections -- Prevention & Control
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 14321831
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 1989, Vol.227(2), pp.188-193
    Description: An objective in the development of ophthalmic formulations is the use of in vitro or animal models that closely resemble the clinical situation. For this reason, experiments with conventional pilocarpine nitrate eyedrops and a depot formulation of pilocarpine nitrate sorbed to poly (butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles were carried out. In vitro, the diffusion of pilocarpine through bovine cornea was measured using Edelhauser cells. In vivo, the rabbit aqueous humor concentration of pilocarpine and miosis were determined after application of the above formulations. In addition, intraocular pressure was measured. Since pilocarpine has little influence on intraocular pressure in healthy rabbits, the pressure had to be increased artificially. Three models were employed that are described in the literature, namely, the betamethasone model, the alpha-chymotrypsin model, and the water-loading model. Pilocarpine could be loaded onto nanoparticles by 15% but was rapidly released from the nanoparticles based on the bovine corneal experiment. Nanoparticles only enhanced the aqueous humor concentration at 30 min; this increase, however, led to a considerably extended period of miosis as well as a reduction in intraocular pressure. The duration of the action and the intensity of the response were different among the three models tested. According to the present results, the betamethasone model seems to represent the best correlation to the clinical situation.
    Keywords: Cornea -- Drug Effects ; Intraocular Pressure -- Drug Effects ; Pilocarpine -- Administration & Dosage;
    ISSN: 0721-832X
    E-ISSN: 1435-702X
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Imaging and Biology, 2013, Vol.15(2), pp.148-154
    Description: PURPOSEIn this study, the contrasting properties of human serum albumin nanoparticles (HSA-NPs) loaded with gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) and coated with transferrin in MRI in mice are evaluated. PROCEDURESHSA-NPs were conjugated with Gd-DTPA (Gd-HSA-NPs) and coupled with transferrin (Gd-HSA-NP-Tf). Mice underwent MRI before or after injection of Gd-DTPA, Gd-HSA-NP, or Gd-HSA-NP-Tf. RESULTSAll the studied contrast agents provided a contrast enhancement (CE) in the blood, heart muscle, and liver. Compared to Gd-DTPA, CE with HSA-NP was achieved at lower Gd doses. Gd-HSA-NP-Tf yielded significantly higher CE than Gd-HSA-NP in the skeletal muscle, blood, cardiac muscle, and liver (p 〈 0.05). Gd-HSA-NP-Tf achieved a significantly higher CE than Gd-HSA-NP and Gd-DTPA in the blood, cardiac muscle, and liver (p 〈 0.05). In the brain, only Gd-HSA-NP-Tf was found to cause a significant CE (p 〈 0.05). CONCLUSIONSThe Gd-HSA nanoparticles have potential as MRI contrast agents. In particular, Gd-HSA-NP-Tf has a potential as a specific contrast agent for the brain, while the blood-brain barrier is still intact, as well as in the heart, liver, and skeletal muscle.
    Keywords: Contrast agent ; Nanoparticles ; Gd-DTPA-human serum albumin-transferrin ; Biodistribution ; Human serum albumin
    ISSN: 1536-1632
    E-ISSN: 1860-2002
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