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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 2010, Vol.205(1), pp.93-105
    Description: As floodplain soils are often contaminated, we studied the release of trace metals from three topsoil horizons in column experiments with variable flow interruptions and flow velocities, compared it with that in batch leaching tests and evaluated the column data by inverse simulations. Only small proportions (〈1%) of trace metals present in the neutral and humic soils were mobilised by the batch leaching tests and the column experiments. Release of Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn in the column experiments was rate-limited, as detected by increased concentrations after flow interruptions. A combination of linear equilibrium and non-equilibrium isotherms reflected the Ni and Zn elution data, with Zn release being slower. Simulated values for initially bound metals available for release are in the same order of magnitude as those determined by the batch leaching tests. However, the consistency of both experimental approaches decreases with increasing rate limitation, as detected here for Zn.
    Keywords: Soil contamination ; Trace metals ; Column experiment ; Kinetics ; Wetland soils
    ISSN: 0049-6979
    E-ISSN: 1573-2932
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 2010, Vol.206(1), pp.395-396
    Description: Byline: Thilo Rennert (1), Jorg Rinklebe (2) Author Affiliation: (1) Lehrstuhl Hydrogeologie, Institut fur Geowissenschaften, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat Jena, Burgweg 11, 07749, Jena, Germany (2) Boden- und Grundwassermanagement, Fachbereich D, Bergische Universitat Wuppertal, Pauluskirchstr. 7, 42285, Wuppertal, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 26/05/2009 Online Date: 25/06/2009 Article note: The online version of the original article can be found under http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11270-009-0058-0.
    Keywords: Soils;
    ISSN: 0049-6979
    E-ISSN: 1573-2932
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, Jan, 2012, Vol.12(1), p.3(21)
    Description: Byline: Thilo Rennert (1), Kai U. Totsche (1), Katja Heister (2), Michael Kersten (3), Jurgen Thieme (4) Keywords: AFM; Interfaces; uCT; NanoSIMS; Soils; X-ray microscopy Abstract: Purpose Biogeochemical interfaces, the 3D association of minerals, soil organic matter, and biota, are hotspots of soil processes because they exhibit strong biological, physical, and chemical gradients. Biogeochemical interfaces have thicknesses from nanometers to micrometers and separate bulk immobile phases from mobile liquid or gaseous phases. The aim of this contribution is to review advanced microscopic and spectroscopic characterization techniques that allow for spatially resolved analysis of composition and properties of biogeochemical interfaces or their visualization. Materials and methods From the variety of techniques to study biogeochemical interfaces in soil, we focus on X-ray spectromicroscopy, nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, micro-X-ray tomography, and positron emission tomography. Beside an introduction into the respective method, we review published applications and give practical examples. Results and discussion The development of terrestrial soils involves the formation of biogeochemical interfaces as the result of the complex 3D interplay of primary and secondary minerals, soil organic matter together with soil biota. X-ray microscopy allows for the visualization of structures down to range of 10--30 nm and for the determination of binding states of elements. Nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry is capable of simultaneously analyzing up to seven secondary ion species to give the elemental and isotopic composition down to 50--150 nm. Atomic force microscopy enables to study the topography and mechanical properties (softness, elasticity, plasticity, deformability) of soil particle surfaces down to the nm scale. X-ray micro-tomography has been shown to visualize the interior of materials at the sub-micrometer scale successfully. Conclusions Introducing and adapting the discussed methods in soil science has increased the understanding of formation, properties, and functioning of biogeochemical interfaces in soil. A further challenging task is to utilize further promising techniques, e.g., advanced Raman techniques or atomic probe tomography with the highest spatial resolution for 3D compositional information of any microscopy technique. Author Affiliation: (1) LS Hydrogeologie, Institut fur Geowissenschaften, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat Jena, Burgweg 11, 07749, Jena, Germany (2) Lehrstuhl fur Bodenkunde, Technische Universitat Munchen, 85350, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany (3) Institut fur Geowissenschaften, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitat Mainz, Becherweg 21, 55099, Mainz, Germany (4) NSLS-II Project, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973, USA Article History: Registration Date: 09/08/2011 Received Date: 01/07/2011 Accepted Date: 09/08/2011 Online Date: 30/08/2011
    Keywords: Mass Spectrometry -- Methods ; Soil Carbon -- Methods ; Nanotechnology -- Methods ; Atomic Force Microscopy -- Methods
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 16147480
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 2017, Vol.39(2), pp.331-344
    Description: Central European floodplain soils are often contaminated with potentially toxic metals. The prediction of their aqueous concentrations is a prerequisite for an assessment of environmental concerns. We tested the aqueous concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) derived from multi-surface adsorption modelling (on hydrous iron, aluminum and manganese oxides, clay and soil organic matter) against those analyzed in situ in the soil solution of four horizons of floodplain soils at the Elbe River, Germany. The input data for the reactive metals were derived from a seven-step sequential extraction scheme or from extraction with 0.43 M nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and evaluated in four modelling scenarios. In all scenarios, measured and modelled concentrations were positively related, except partially for Pb. Close reproduction of the measured data was obtained using measured data of accompanying cations and anions together with amounts of reactive metals from both the sequential extraction or from 0.43 M HNO 3 extraction, except for Cu, which was often strongly overestimated, and partially Cd. We recommend extraction with 0.43 M HNO 3 to quantify reactive metals in soil because the modelling results were metal-specific with better or equal results using the single extractant, the application of which is also less laborious. Approximations of ion concentrations and water contents yielded similar results. Modelled solid-phase speciation of metals varied with pH and differed from that from sequential extraction. Multi-surface modelling may be an effective tool to predict both aqueous concentrations and solid-phase speciation of metals in soil.
    Keywords: Multi-surface modelling ; Metals ; Soil contamination ; Sequential extraction ; Fluvisol
    ISSN: 0269-4042
    E-ISSN: 1573-2983
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 2010, Vol.209(1), pp.489-500
    Description: The applicability of laboratory tests for the prediction of soil solution composition and concentrations of inorganic contaminants is still under debate. Therefore, we carried out two batch-leaching tests differing in their liquid/solid ratios and column experiments (saturated flow, two flow velocities, four flow interruptions ranging from 4 h to 21 days) with a contaminated humic horizon (total contents: As, 196 mg kg −1 ; Cd, 4 mg kg −1 ; Cr, 202 mg kg −1 ; Cu, 227 mg kg −1 ; Ni, 64 mg kg −1 ; Pb, 308 mg kg −1 ; Zn, 1,176 mg kg −1 ) from a Mollic Fluvisol near the rivers Elbe and Saale (Germany) and compared the aqueous contaminant concentrations with those of soil solutions obtained in situ with ceramic suction cups on a monthly basis between 2002 and 2006. Contaminant release in the field slightly depended on the water regime, pH, and redox potential and was characterized by partially high concentrations (e.g., As, 47 µg l −1 ; Cd, 136 µg l −1 ; Ni, 328 µg l −1 ; Zn, 8.68 mg l −1 ), which exceeded the German inspection values. Metal concentrations obtained in batch-leaching tests partially fitted to those determined in the soil solution and to those from the column experiments even irrespective of the varying liquid/solid ratios. The column experiments yielded realistic concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb and their ranges. Furthermore, they provided an insight into release kinetics and release processes as well as into potential contaminant release due to enforced reducing conditions. As column experiments allow a larger temporal sampling resolution and enable quickly to manipulate experimental conditions, they are a useful complement of soil solution monitoring.
    Keywords: Wetland soil ; Soil solution ; Metals ; Batch-leaching test ; Column experiments ; Soil contamination
    ISSN: 0049-6979
    E-ISSN: 1573-2932
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 2017, Vol.39(6), pp.1291-1304
    Description: European floodplain soils are frequently contaminated with potentially toxic inorganic substances. We used a multi-surface model to estimate the aqueous concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in three Mollic Fluvisols from the Central Elbe River (Germany). The model considered complexation in solution and interactions with soil organic matter (SOM), a clay mineral and hydrous Al, Fe and Mn oxides. The amounts of reactive metals were derived from extraction with 0.43 M HNO 3 . Modelling was carried out as a function of pH (soil pH ± 1.4) because it varies in floodplain soils owing to redox processes that consume or release protons. The fraction of reactive metals, which were dissolved according to the modelling, was predominantly 〈1%. Depending on soil properties, especially pH and contents of SOM and minerals of the clay fraction, the modelled concentrations partially exceeded the trigger values for the soil–groundwater pathway of the German soil legislation. This differentiation by soil properties was given for Ni, Pb and Zn. On the other hand, Cd was more mobile, i.e., the trigger values were mostly exceeded. Copper represented the opposite, as the modelling did not predict exceeding the trigger values in any horizon. Except for Pb and partially Zn (where oxides were more important), SOM was the most important adsorbent for metals. However, given the special composition and dynamics of SOM in mollic horizons, we suggest further quantitative and qualitative investigations on SOM and on its interaction with metals to improve the prediction of contaminant dynamics.
    Keywords: Floodplain soil ; Metals ; Soil contamination ; Adsorption ; Multi-surface modelling
    ISSN: 0269-4042
    E-ISSN: 1573-2983
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 1/2012, Vol.12(1), pp.1-2
    Description: Understanding and visualizing the architecture of biochemical interfaces in soil, enlightening the processes affecting their formation and maturation, and elucidating the processes occurring on biogeochemical interfaces have thus been identified as an emerging decadal challenge in soil science.
    Keywords: Soil Sciences ; Biogeochemistry;
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
    Source: Springer (via CrossRef)
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  • 8
    Language: German
    In: Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung, 2004, Vol.16(3), pp.151-154
    Description: Hochofengasschlamm ist ein Abfallprodukt der Roheisenerzeugung, das Schadstoffe wie Blei, Zink, Fluorid und Cyanid enthält und über Auswaschung das Grundwasser belasten kann. Wir untersuchten die chemische Zusammensetzung von 27 Proben deponierter Hochofengasschlämme in Porenwässern, die durch Zentrifugieren feldfrischen Materials gewonnen wurden und in Eluaten nach DIN 38414 Teil 4 (S 4). Sowohl die Porenwässer als auch die Eluate waren neutral bis alkalisch (pH 7,3 bis 10,7) und wurden von Alkali-und Erdalkalimetallen sowie Sulfat und Nitrat dominiert. Die Konzentrationen sämtlicher untersuchten Elemente und Verbindungen waren in den Porenwässern meist deutlich höher als in den Eluaten. Die durchschnittlichen Konzentrationen in den Porenwässern der umweltrelevanten Bestandteile Blei (0,18 mgl-1), Zink (1,5 mgl-1), Fluorid (10,6 mgl-1) und Gesamtcyanid (1,8 mgl-1) lagen deutlich über den Prüfwerten der Bundes-Bodenschutz-und Altlastenverordnung für den Wirkungspfad Boden-Grundwasser. Blei-, Zink- und Gesamtcyanidkonzentrationen in den Porenwässern wurden in Eluaten sehr stark unterschätzt, da diese Konzentrationen in den Eluaten um 70 bis 90% geringer als in den Porenwässern waren. Im Fall deponierter Hochofengasschlämme liefern Eluate nach DIN 38414 Teil 4 (S 4) unrealistisch geringe Stoffkonzentrationen zur Sickerwasserprognose. Blast-furnace sludge is a waste originating from pig-iron production and contains contaminants such as lead, zinc, fluoride and cyanide assumably contaminating the groundwater by leaching. We investigated the chemical composition of 27 samples of landfilled blast-furnace sludge in pore waters which were obtained by the centrifugation of fresh material and elution with water according to DIN 38414 part 4 (S 4). The pore waters as well as the eluates were neutral to alkaline (pH 7.3 to 10.7) and were dominated by alkali and alkaline-earth metals as well as sulphate and nitrate. The concentrations of all elements and compounds investigated were mostly clearly larger in the pore waters than in the eluates. The average concentrations of environmentally relevant constituents such as lead (0,18 mg-1), zinc (1,5 mg l-1), fluoride (10,6 mg l-1), and total cyanide (1.8 mg l-1) in the pore waters were distinctly larger than the inspection value of the German Federal soil Protection Ordinance for the pathway soil-groundwater. Lead, zinc, and total cyanide concentrations in the pore waters were largely underestimated by the eluates, as these concentrations were 70 to 90% lower in the eluates compared to the pore waters. In the case of landfilled blast-furnace sludge, eluates according to DIN 38414 part 4 (S 4) provide low concentrations which are unrealistic to forecast concentrations in the seepage water.[PUBLICATION ]
    Keywords: Blast-furnace sludge ; cyanide ; eluates ; fluoride ; lead ; pore water ; zinc
    ISSN: 0934-3504
    E-ISSN: 1865-5084
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