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  • Springer (CrossRef)  (21)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.366(1), pp.617-631
    Description: Background and aims Replant problems or soil sickness are known phenomena but still unsolved. The aims of this study were (i) to set up a test system for detecting replant problems using in vitro propagated apple rootstocks (M26) based on different soil disinfection treatments and (ii) to explore the treatment effects on root morphology and soil microbial community structure. Methods The bio-test involved soil with apple replant problems (apple sick) and healthy soil from an adjacent plot, both either untreated, or submitted to treatments of 50 and 100 °C, or the chemical soil disinfectant Basamid. Histological analyses of roots and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints in rhizosphere soil collected at the final evaluation were performed. Results After 10 weeks, shoot dry mass on apple sick soil was 79, 108 and 124 % higher for soil treated at 50 °C, 100 °C and with Basamid, respectively, compared to the untreated soil. Roots in untreated apple sick soil showed destroyed epidermal and cortical layers. DGGE fingerprints revealed treatment dependent differences in community composition and relative abundance of total bacteria, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and total fungi. Conclusions The clear differences detected in soil microbial communities are the first steps towards a better understanding of the causes for apple replant problems.
    Keywords: Apple replant disease ; Apple replant problem ; Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) ; Malus domestica ; Microbial community profiling ; Root morphology ; Specific soil sickness
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2016, Vol.100(21), pp.9343-9353
    Description: Pig manures are frequently used as fertilizer or co-substrate in biogas plants (BGPs) and typically contain antibiotic residues (ARs), as well as bacteria carrying resistance genes (RGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs). A survey of manures from eight pig fattening and six pig breeding farms and digestates from eight BGPs in Lower Saxony, Germany was conducted to evaluate the link between antibiotic usage and ARs to RGs and MGEs present in organic fertilizers. In total, 11 different antibiotics belonging to six substance classes were applied in the farms investigated. Residue analysis revealed concentrations of tetracycline up to 300 mg kg −1 dry weight (DW) in manures and of doxycycline up to 10.1 mg kg −1 DW in digestates indicating incomplete removal during anaerobic digestion. RGs ( sul1 , sul2 , tet (A), tet (M), tet (X), qacE ∆ 1 ) were detected in total community DNA of all samples by PCR-Southern blot hybridization. Broad-host range plasmids (IncP-1, IncQ, IncN, and IncW) and integron integrase genes ( intI1 , intI2 ) were found in most manure samples with IncN and IncW plasmids being more abundant in manure from pig breeding compared to pig fattening farms. IntI1 , IncQ, and IncW plasmids were also detected in all digestates, while IncP-1, IncN, and LowGC plasmids were detected only sporadically. Our findings strongly reinforce the need for further research to identify mitigation strategies to reduce the level of contamination of organic fertilizers with ARs and transferable RGs that are applied to soil and that might influence the mobile resistome of the plant microbiome.
    Keywords: Antibiotic resistance genes ; Mobile genetic elements ; Antibiotics ; Pig husbandry ; Manures ; Digestates
    ISSN: 0175-7598
    E-ISSN: 1432-0614
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2017, Vol.101(11), pp.4815-4825
    Description: On-farm biopurification systems (BPSs) represent an efficient technology for treating pesticide-contaminated wastewater. Biodegradation by genetically adapted bacteria has been suggested to perform a major contribution to the removal of pesticides in BPSs. Recently, several studies pointed to the role of IncP-1 plasmids in the degradation of pesticides in BPSs but this was never linked with catabolic markers. Therefore, a microcosm experiment was conducted in order to examine whether changes in mobile genetic element (MGE) abundances in response to the application of phenylurea herbicide linuron are linked with changes in catabolic genes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints of 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments amplified from total community (TC)-DNA suggested significant shifts in the bacterial community composition. PCR-Southern blot-based detection of genes involved in linuron hydrolysis ( libA and hylA ) or degradation of its metabolite 3,4-dichloroaniline ( dcaQ I , dcaQ II , and ccdC ) in TC-DNA showed that the abundance of the hylA gene was increased faster and stronger in response to linuron application than that of the libA gene, and that the dcaQ II gene was more abundant than the isofunctional gene dcaQ I 20 and 60 days after linuron addition. Furthermore, a significant increase in the relative abundance of the IncP-1-specific korB gene in response to linuron was recorded. Our data suggest that different bacterial populations bearing isofunctional genes coding for enzymes degrading linuron seemed to be enriched in BPSs in response to linuron and that IncP-1 plasmids might be involved in their dissemination.
    Keywords: Total community DNA ; 16S rRNA genes ; Degradative genes ; PCR hybridization ; Plasmids
    ISSN: 0175-7598
    E-ISSN: 1432-0614
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2012, Vol.361(1), pp.343-357
    Description: Co-inoculation of biocontrol agents with different modes of action is assumed to improve biocontrol activity. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of single or co-inoculation of Trichoderma viride strain GB7 and Serratia plymuthica strain 3Re4-18 on microbial communities in the rhizosphere of lettuce and their ability to suppress Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB.Growth chamber experiments with two different application modes were performed with single or co-inoculation of GB7 and 3Re4-18 in the presence or absence of R. solani. Biocontrol efficacy and plant growth parameters were assessed. Bacterial and fungal communities were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene and ITS fragments PCR-amplified from total community DNA of rhizosphere samples and analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.Compared to the single application, the co-inoculation of 3Re4-18 and GB7 resulted in an improved biocontrol efficacy. DGGE analysis revealed more pronounced effect on microbial community in co-inoculation treatment. The abundance of 3Re4-18 in the rhizosphere seemed to be increased in the presence of R. solani.The applied cultivation-independent methods provided insights into the complex interaction in response to the pathogen and the antagonists. Co-inoculation resulted in an improved biocontrol efficacy and an increased evenness of the microbial communities.
    Keywords: Biocontrol ; Co-inoculation ; Rhizosphere community ; 16S rRNA gene and ITS-based fingerprints
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2010, Vol.326(1), pp.437-452
    Description: To assess potential effects of genetically modified (GM) potatoes on the abundance and diversity of rhizobacteria with in vitro antagonistic activity in relation to natural variability among cultivars, two GM potato lines accumulating the carotenoid zeaxanthin in their tubers, the parental cultivar and four additional commercial cultivars were planted at two field sites in Germany. Rhizosphere samples were taken at three developmental stages of the plants. A total of 3,985 bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere were screened for their in vitro antagonistic activity towards Rhizoctonia solani , Verticillium dahliae and Phytophthora infestans using a dual-culture assay. Genotypic characterisation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and antifungal metabolite analysis was performed to characterize the 595 antagonists obtained. The 16S rRNA gene-based identification of in vitro antagonists revealed strong site-dependent differences in their taxonomic composition. This study showed that the site was the overriding factor determining the proportion and diversity of antagonists from the rhizosphere of potato while the effect of the genetic modification on the proportion of antagonists obtained did not exceed natural variability among the five commercial cultivars tested.
    Keywords: Genetically modified potatoes ; In vitro antagonists ; BOX ; 16S rRNA gene
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2013, Vol.97(3), pp.1361-1371
    Description: Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a serious threat for agricultural production in China. Eight soil bacterial isolates with activity against R. solanacearum TM15 (biovar 3) were tested in this study for their in vitro activity towards ten genetically diverse R. solanacearum isolates from China. The results indicated that each antagonist showed remarkable differences in its ability to in vitro antagonize the ten different R. solanacearum strains. Strain XY21 (based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing affiliated to Serratia ) was selected for further studies based on its in vitro antagonistic activity and its excellent rhizocompetence on tomato plants. Under greenhouse conditions XY21 mediated biocontrol of tomato wilt caused by seven different R. solanacearum strains ranged from 19 to 70 %. The establishment of XY21 and its effects on the bacterial community in the tomato rhizosphere were monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments PCR-amplified from total community DNA. A positive correlation of the in vitro antagonistic activities of XY21 and the actual biocontrol efficacies towards seven genetically different R. solanacearum strains was found and further confirmed by the efficacy of XY21 in controlling bacterial wilt under field conditions.
    Keywords: Ralstonia solanacearum ; Biocontrol ; sp. ; Rhizocompetence ; Pathogen diversity ; DGGE
    ISSN: 0175-7598
    E-ISSN: 1432-0614
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2016, Vol.406(1), pp.389-408
    Description: Aims The effects of biofumigation with Brassica juncea 'Terra Plus' and Raphanus sativus 'Defender' in comparison to Basamid on apple plant growth and on soil microbial communities were studied at three sites affected by replant disease under field conditions. Methods Apple rootstocks were planted on differently treated plots to evaluate the effect of the treatments on plant growth under field and greenhouse conditions. The glucosinolates in biofumigant plant organs and their breakdown products in soils were determined. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints were performed with 16S rRNA gene and ITS fragments amplified from total community DNA extracted from different soils. Results The highest glucosinolate concentrations were found in inflorescences of both biofumigant plant species with no differences between sites. The most abundant degradation product in soil biofumigated with B. juncea was 2-propenyl isothiocyanate, while in soil treated with R. sativus only 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate was detected. Effects of biofumigation were recorded to be stronger on fungi than on bacteria. Growth of apple rootstocks was positively affected by the treatments in a site-dependent manner. Conclusions The effects of biofumigation evaluated by the apple plant growth were site-dependent and might result from suppression of soil-borne pests and pathogens, changes in soil microbial community compositions, and additional nutrients from the incorporated biomass.
    Keywords: Apple replant disease ; Bacterial community composition ; Biofumigation ; DGGE ; Fungal community composition ; Glucosinolate ; Indicator plant ; Isothiocyanate ; Malus domestica
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 8
    Language: German
    In: BIOspektrum, 5/2013, Vol.19(3), pp.243-246
    Description: Antibiotic substances and resistant bacterial populations are introduced into agricultural soil by manure fertilization. However, the fate and effects of antibiotics in soil are not well understood. Here, we give an overview about effects of agricultural use of antibiotics on soil microbial communities, abundance, and transfer of resistance genes, the role of mobile genetic elements such as plasmids and the potential risks for human health.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences, General ; Biochemistry, General ; Human Genetics ; Microbiology ; Developmental Biology ; Pharmacology/Toxicology ; Sciences (General);
    ISSN: 0947-0867
    E-ISSN: 1868-6249
    Source: Springer (via CrossRef)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 2018, Vol.17(1), pp.159-185
    Description: Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are surface-active, antimicrobial, high production volume (HPV) chemicals with a broad application in agriculture. This review provides a comprehensive overview of (1) predicted and measured concentrations of QACs in soils including their analysis, (2) sequestration mechanisms in soils based on their physicochemical properties and chemical structure, and (3) implications of concentrations and fate of QACs in soils for the proliferation of antibiotic resistance in the environment. Predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) for QACs that are applied to soils with manure are in the order of 3.5 mg kg −1 . Based on literature data, the median PEC of QAC in sewage sludge amended soils is 25 µg kg −1 . The positively charged QACs are mainly sorbed to clay minerals. We propose that QACs might be sequestered in the interlayer regions of layered silicates in clay-rich soils, reducing their acute toxicity, while increasing their persistence. The release of sequestered QACs from soil can still potentially maintain concentration levels that are sufficient to develop antibiotic resistance in the environment.
    Keywords: Quaternary ammonium compounds ; Quaternary alkylammonium compounds ; Soil ; Environment ; Desinfectant use ; Antibiotic resistance genes ; Biocide susceptibility ; QAC genes ; Class 1 integrons ; Clay minerals ; Montmorillonite ; Interlayer sorption
    ISSN: 1569-1705
    E-ISSN: 1572-9826
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Microbial Ecology, 2010, Vol.60(4), pp.703-707
    Description: Sulfadiazine (SDZ) is an antibiotic frequently used in agricultural husbandry. Via manuring of excrements of medicated animals, the drug reaches the soil and might impair important biochemical transformation processes performed by microbes, e.g., the nitrogen turnover. We studied the effect of pig manure and SDZ-spiked pig manure on denitrifying bacteria by quantifying nirK and nirS nitrite reductase genes in two arable soils. Addition of manure entailed mainly an increase of nirK -harboring denitrifiers in both soils, whereas in the SDZ-amended treatments, primarily the nirS denitrifiers increased in abundance after the bioavailable SDZ had declined. However, the community composition of nirS nitrite reducers investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis did not change despite the observed alterations in abundance.
    Keywords: Environmental Health ; Bacterial Genetics ; Soil Ecology ; Sulfadiazine ; Soils ; Universities And Colleges;
    ISSN: 0095-3628
    E-ISSN: 1432-184X
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