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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Transport in Porous Media, 2016, Vol.112(1), pp.207-227
    Description: According to experimental observations, capillary trapping is strongly dependent on the roughness of the pore–solid interface. We performed imbibition experiments in the range of capillary numbers ( Ca ) from $$10^{-6}$$ 10 - 6 to $$5\times 10^{-5}$$ 5 × 10 - 5 using 2D-micromodels, which exhibit a rough surface. The microstructure comprises a double-porosity structure with pronounced macropores. The dynamics of precursor thin-film flow and its importance for capillary trapping are studied. The experimental data for thin-film flow advancement show a square-root time dependence. Based on the experimental data, we conducted inverse modeling to investigate the influence of surface roughness on the dynamic contact angle of precursor thin-film flow. Our experimental results show that trapped gas saturation decreases logarithmically with an increasing capillary number. Cluster analysis shows that the morphology and number of trapped clusters change with capillary number. We demonstrate that capillary trapping shows significant differences for vertical flow and horizontal flow. We found that our experimental results agree with theoretical results of percolation theory for $$Ca =10^{-6}$$ C a = 10 - 6 : (i) a universal power-like cluster size distribution, (ii) the linear surface–volume relationship of trapped clusters, and (iii) the existence of the cutoff correlation length for the maximal cluster height. The good agreement is a strong argument that the experimental cluster size distribution is caused by a percolation-like trapping process (ordinary percolation). For the first time, it is demonstrated experimentally that the transition zone model proposed by Wilkinson (Phys Rev A 30:520–531, 1984) can be applied to 2D-micromodels, if bicontinuity is generalized such that it holds for the thin-film water phase and the bulk gas phase.
    Keywords: 2D-micromodel with rough surface ; Precursor thin-film flow ; Snap-off trapping ; Universal power law ; Ordinary bond percolation
    ISSN: 0169-3913
    E-ISSN: 1573-1634
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2010, Vol.332(1), pp.163-176
    Description: Water flow from soil to plants depends on the properties of the soil next to roots, the rhizosphere. Although several studies showed that the rhizosphere has different properties than the bulk soil, effects of the rhizosphere on root water uptake are commonly neglected. To investigate the rhizosphere’s properties we used neutron radiography to image water content distributions in soil samples planted with lupins during drying and subsequent rewetting. During drying, the water content in the rhizosphere was 0.05 larger than in the bulk soil. Immediately after rewetting, the picture reversed and the rhizosphere remained markedly dry. During the following days the water content of the rhizosphere increased and after 60 h it exceeded that of the bulk soil. The rhizosphere’s thickness was approximately 1.5 mm. Based on the observed dynamics, we derived the distinct, hysteretic and time-dependent water retention curve of the rhizosphere. Our hypothesis is that the rhizosphere’s water retention curve was determined by mucilage exuded by roots. The rhizosphere properties reduce water depletion around roots and weaken the drop of water potential towards roots, therefore favoring water uptake under dry conditions, as demonstrated by means of analytical calculation of water flow to a single root.
    Keywords: Root water uptake ; Water retention curve ; Rhizosphere ; Neutron radiography ; Mucilage ; Hysteresis
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 10/2015, Vol.15(10), pp.2155-2173
    Description: Issue Title: Advances in Sediment Fingerprinting Purpose Water reservoirs around the world suffer from accelerated sediment loads and, consequently, contamination. Notably, in water-scarce regions such as Jordan, this poses a threat to an important water source, and identifying the sediment sources is an important task. Thus, a sediment fingerprinting study in the Wadi Al-Arab catchment of northern Jordan was implemented with special attention directed to the development of suitable correction factors necessary to improve the comparability of source and sink sediments. The selection of seven conservative elements for the sediment fingerprinting was made, with specific attention directed to the chemical environment of the reservoir. Materials and methods Thirty-six samples from six different surface and subsurface sources and 38 sink samples from the Wadi Al-Arab reservoir were collected. In total, 27 organic and inorganic elements as well as radionuclides were analysed. Two vertical physicochemical water profiles provided information on the pH and Eh conditions and common element concentrations. The stepwise multiple regression analysis model (SMRAM) was developed to explore parameters that influence the element concentrations and their interrelations, and to calculate an element-specific correction factor. The standard selection procedure was expanded by the comparison of water and sink sediment element concentrations, a literature review concerning the pH and Eh conditions and, in selected cases, a correlation analysis. Results and discussion The combination of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, ^sup 232^Th, ^sup 228^Th and ^sup 137^Cs provided the best source discrimination, and based on Monte Carlo simulations, the mixing model revealed the existence of three major sediment source areas. These are as follows: (i) olive orchards on slopes, which delivered 59±8 % of the sediments in the sink; (ii) cultivated fields on plateau and saddle positions contributed 11±9 %; and (iii) slopes with natural vegetation used for grazing contributed 29±15 % of the deposited sediment. With a mean residual error of 1.04 %, the sum of the source concentrations differs only slightly from sink concentrations and proves that the model is reliable. Conclusions The SMRAM model revealed that the different inorganic (total inorganic carbon, TIC) and organic (total organic carbon, TOC) carbon contents and the clay/sand content influence the element concentrations of the sediment samples. Due to the carbonatic environment, it was mainly necessary to correct for TIC. Applying an expanded literature review regarding the chemical environment under investigation, in addition to the standard mass conservation and Kruskal-Wallis test, prevented possible non-conservative elements from entering the discriminant analysis.
    Keywords: Sediment Transport ; Reservoirs ; Grain Size ; Soil Erosion ; Correction Factors ; Grain Size Selectivity ; Jordan ; Soil Erosion ; Stepwise Multiple Regression;
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
    Source: Springer (via CrossRef)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Earth Sciences, 2013, Vol.69(2), pp.317-333
    Description: Sustainable water quality management requires a profound understanding of water fluxes (precipitation, run-off, recharge, etc.) and solute turnover such as retention, reaction, transformation, etc. at the catchment or landscape scale. The Water and Earth System Science competence cluster (WESS, http://www.wess.info/ ) aims at a holistic analysis of the water cycle coupled to reactive solute transport, including soil–plant–atmosphere and groundwater–surface water interactions. To facilitate exploring the impact of land-use and climate changes on water cycling and water quality, special emphasis is placed on feedbacks between the atmosphere, the land surface, and the subsurface. A major challenge lies in bridging the scales in monitoring and modeling of surface/subsurface versus atmospheric processes. The field work follows the approach of contrasting catchments, i.e. neighboring watersheds with different land use or similar watersheds with different climate. This paper introduces the featured catchments and explains methodologies of WESS by selected examples.
    Keywords: Water and solute fluxes ; Water quality ; Catchments ; Land-surface atmosphere exchange ; Processes and feedbacks ; Modeling ; Monitoring
    ISSN: 1866-6280
    E-ISSN: 1866-6299
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Earth Sciences, 2017, Vol.76(1), pp.1-25
    Description: This article provides an overview about the Bode River catchment that was selected as the hydrological observatory and main region for hydro-ecological research within the TERrestrial ENvironmental Observatories Harz/Central German Lowland Observatory. It first provides information about the general characteristics of the catchment including climate, geology, soils, land use, water quality and aquatic ecology, followed by the description of the interdisciplinary research framework and the monitoring concept with the main components of the multi-scale and multi-temporal monitoring infrastructure. It also shows examples of interdisciplinary research projects aiming to advance the understanding of complex hydrological processes under natural and anthropogenic forcings and their interactions in a catchment context. The overview is complemented with research work conducted at a number of intensive research sites, each focusing on a particular functional zone or specific components and processes of the hydro-ecological system.
    Keywords: Monitoring ; Catchment ; Water quality ; Observatory ; Water fluxes
    ISSN: 1866-6280
    E-ISSN: 1866-6299
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  • 6
    Language: German
    In: Medizinische Klinik, 1997, Vol.92(7), pp.410-414
    Description: Die Anwendung hämatopoetischer Wachstumsfaktoren und die Retransfusion patienteneigener, aus dem Blut gewonnener peripherer Blutstammzellen (PBSZ) hat in den letzten Jahren die Option zur Durchführung einer Hochdosischemotherapie (HDT) auch bei fortgeschrittenen soliden Tumoren ermöglicht. Da mit der Transfusion von peripheren Blutstammzellen die Myelosuppression beherrschbar wurde, bestimmt die nichthämatologische Toxizität den Grad der Dosiseskalation.In der Regel wurden Hochdosischemotherapien nach vorausgegangener dosisintensivierter Chemotherapie durchgeführt. Durch die vorgeschaltete Chemotherapie soll einerseits die Chemosensibilität der Tumorerkrankung nachgewiesen und andererseits eine Stammzellmobilisierung bewirkt werden. Früher wurde die Hochdosischemotherapie durch eine autologe Knochenmarktransplantation (AKMT), heute fast ausnahmslos durch die Retransfusion von peripheren Blutstammzellen als spezifische Supportivmaßnahme begleitet. Die peripheren Blutstammzellen werden durch die Apherese der mononukleären Zellfraktion am Zellseparator gesammelt.Nennenswerte Erfahrungen mit der Hochdosischemotherapie beim Erwachsenen liegen für das Mamma-, Hoden-, Ovarial-, kleinzellige Bronchialkarzinom (SCLC), Melanom, Glioblastom und Weichgewebssarkom vor. Die Studien belegen die Durchführbarkeit und Effektivität der Hochdosischemotherapie bei tolerabler Toxizität.Die Hochdosischemotherapie wird zukünftig eine zunehmende Bedeutung in dem primären Chemotherapiekonzept von soliden Tumoren bekommen.The availability of hemopoetic growth factors and the retransfusion of autologous peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) have enabled high-dose chemotherapy (HDT) options for the treatment of advanced solid tumours, during recent years. Though the transfusion of PBSC can manage the myelosuppression, dose-escalation ist still limited by non-haematological toxicity.Usually, HDT has been given after a preceeding dose-intense chemotherapy that allowed the evaluation of chemosensitivity of the disease and resulted in a stem cell mobilization into the peripheral blood. The autologous bone marrow transplantation has almost completely been replaced by retransfusion of PBSC together with hemopoetic growth factors as specific supportive treatment. The PBSC are harvested by apheresis using a blood cell separator.Results on the efficacy of HDT are available for breast, testicular, ovarian, small cell lung cancer as well as melanoma, glioblastoma and soft-tissue sarcoma. The studies showed the feasibility and efficacy of HDT with tolerable toxicity.High-dose chemotherapy will be of increasing importance in the treatment strategies of primary solid tumors, in the near future.
    Keywords: High-dose chemotherapy ; Peripheral blood stem cells ; Solid tumors
    ISSN: 0723-5003
    E-ISSN: 1615-6722
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