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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, 2012, Vol.14(3), pp.433-453
    Description: There is much discussion within the sustainable development community regarding climate stabilization and particularly, finding environmentally equitable ways to address emission reductions. Knowing the current level of emission is only one variable in this complex picture. While the rate of emissions is clearly a problem, the overall increase in GHG concentration in the atmosphere is ultimately the main driver of anthropogenic warming. Therefore, it is also important to understand the cumulative emissions, those which have taken us to the current condition. This research presents a case study of six countries to compare the emissions per capita and cumulative emissions during the past 200 years. It is known that carbon emissions are closely related to economic activities, but here we show that some countries have reached per capita emissions plateaus at different levels while others are still rising. Specifically, one approach toward socioeconomic development, in terms of energy–economy, reaches a plateau at 10 Mt carbon per person, which the United Kingdom and South Korea have attained. The US occupies another emission regime at 20 Mt carbon per person. Developing economies such as India and China are considerably below these levels, and unless they follow other integrated economic/environmental solutions, they will continue to increase their per capita emissions during development.
    Keywords: Climate change ; Carbon emissions ; Per capita emissions ; Cumulative emissions ; Development ; Economy
    ISSN: 1387-585X
    E-ISSN: 1573-2975
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Ecosystems, 1999, Vol.2(2), pp.167-179
    Description: This article introduces and summarizes the foundations of network environ analysis and describes four primary properties resulting from this research. These properties— dominance of indirect effects (Higashi and Patten 1986), network amplification (Patten and others 1990), network homogenization (Patten and others 1990), and network synergism (Patten 1991)—provide insight into the behavior of holistic network interactions. In short, amplification, homogenization, and indirect effects demonstrate the influence of the indirect flows in a system to show that energy or matter cycling allows flow to return to the same component many times and tend to become evenly distributed within the network. Synergism relates direct and indirect, qualitative relations to show that network organization is, on the whole, more mutualistic than is apparent from direct interactions alone. Using network analysis, objects can be studied as part of a connected system and the indirect effects can be identified and quantified. This is a fundamentally different way of investigating ecosystems, and it gives a quantitative foundation to the widely held perception of the interconnectedness of nature.
    Keywords: Key words: ecological modeling; environ analysis; indirect effects; network analysis; synergism; systems analysis.
    ISSN: 1432-9840
    E-ISSN: 14350629
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