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  • SpringerLink  (11)
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  • 1
    Language: German
    In: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, 2014, Vol.164(11), pp.228-238
    Description: Um die Effektivität von (Hoch-)inten­sivem Intervalltraining (HIIT) im Nachwuchsleistungssport und bei untrainierten gesunden Kindern und Jugendlichen in der wissenschaftlichen Literatur einzuschätzen, wurde eine computerbasierte Literaturrecherche in den elektronischen Datenbanken PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus und Web of Science durchgeführt. Studien, welche die Auswirkungen von HIIT-Interventionen auf die Leistungsfähigkeit von Kindern und Jugendlichen (9–18 Jahre) anhand von Analysen der motorischen oder leistungsphysiologischen Kenngrößen der Probanden, vor und nach der Trainingsintervention, analysierten, wurden berücksichtigt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten eine Verbesserung aerober und anaerober Leistungsparameter bei einer Anwendung von zwei bis drei Einheiten HIIT pro Woche über einen Zeitraum von fünf bis zehn Wochen, zusätzlich zum normalen Training. Langzeitstudien zu HIIT, welche auf langfristige Trainingseffekte hinweisen, fehlen. Darüber hinaus wurde aufgrund von physiologischen Besonderheiten während HIIT-Protokollen eine verbesserte Ermüdungsresistenz bei Kindern im Vergleich zu Erwachsenen belegt, was als gute Voraussetzung für die Anwendbarkeit von HIIT bei Kindern interpretiert werden kann. A computer-based literature research during July 2013 using the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science was performed to assess the effect of the high intensity interval training (HIIT) on sport performance in healthy children and adolescents. Studies examining the effect of HIIT on aerobic and anaerobic performance pre and post to HIIT-Interventions in children and adolescents (9–18 years) were included. The results indicate increased aerobic and anaerobic performance following two or three HIIT sessions per week for a period of five to ten weeks, additional to normal training. Results regarding long term effects following HIIT have not been documented so far. In addition, due to the physiological characteris-tics during HIIT protocols improved fatigue resistance has been demonstrated in children as compared to adults, which may be interpreted as a prerequisite for the applicability of HIIT in children.
    Keywords: High intensity training ; Endurance ; Adaptions ; Children and adolescents ; Performance improvements
    ISSN: 0043-5341
    E-ISSN: 1563-258X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Sports Medicine, 2016, Vol.46(12), pp.1939-1952
    Description: BACKGROUND: Runners at various levels of performance and specializing in different events (from 800m to marathons) wear compression socks, sleeves, shorts, and/or tights in attempt to improve their performance and facilitate recovery. Recently, a number of publications reporting contradictory results with regard to the influence of compression garments in this context have appeared.OBJECTIVES: To assess original research on the effects of compression clothing (socks, calf sleeves, shorts, and tights) on running performance and recovery.METHOD: A computerized research of the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science was performed in September of 2015, and the relevant articles published in peer-reviewed journals were thus identified rated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale. Studies examining effects on physiological, psychological, and/or biomechanical parameters during or after running were included, and means and measures of variability for the outcome employed to calculate Hedges'g effect size and associated 95% confidence intervals for comparison of experimental (compression) and control (non-compression) trials.RESULTS: Compression garments exerted no statistically significant mean effects on running performance (times for a (half) marathon, 15-km trail running, 5- and 10-km runs, and 400-m sprint), maximal and submaximal oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentrations, blood gas kinetics, cardiac parameters (including heart rate, cardiac output, cardiac index, and stroke volume), body and perceived temperature, or the performance of strength-related tasks after running. Small positive effect sizes were calculated for the time to exhaustion (in incremental or step tests), running economy (including biomechanical variables), clearance of blood lactate, perceived exertion, maximal voluntary isometric contraction and peak leg muscle power immediately after running, and markers of muscle damage and inflammation. The body core temperature was moderately affected by compression, while the effect size values for post-exercise leg soreness and the delay in onset of muscle fatigue indicated large positive effects.CONCLUSION: Our present findings suggest that by wearing compression clothing, runners may improve variables related to endurance performance (i.e., time to exhaustion) slightly, due to improvements in running economy, biomechanical variables, perception, and muscle temperature. They should also benefit from reduced muscle pain, damage, and inflammation.
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0112-1642
    E-ISSN: 1179-2035
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2016, Vol.116(11), pp.2177-2186
    Description: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs high-volume training (HVT) on salivary stress markers [cortisol (sC), testosterone (sT), alpha-amylase (sAA)], metabolic and cardiorespiratory response in young athletes.Twelve young male cyclists (14 ± 1 years; 57.9 ± 9.4 mL min−1 kg−1 peak oxygen uptake) performed one session of HIIT (4 × 4 min intervals at 90–95 % peak power output separated by 3 min of active rest) and one session of HVT (90 min constant load at 60 % peak power output). The levels of sC, sT, their ratio (sT/sC) and sAA were determined before and 0, 30, 60, 180 min after each intervention. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory stress was characterized by blood lactate, blood pH, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake ( $$V_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }}$$ V O 2 ), ventilation (V E) and ventilatory equivalent (V E/ $$V_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }}$$ V O 2 ).sC increased 30 and 60 min after HIIT. However, 180 min post exercise, sC decreased below baseline levels in both conditions. sT increased 0 and 30 min after HIIT and 0 min after HVT. sAA and sT/sC ratio did not change significantly over time in HIIT nor HVT. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory stress, evidenced by blood lactate, HR, $$V_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }}$$ V O 2 , V E, and V E/ $$V_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }}$$ V O 2 was higher during HIIT compared to HVT.The metabolic and cardiorespiratory stress during HIIT was higher compared to HVT, but based on salivary analyses (cortisol, testosterone, alpha-amylase), we conclude no strong acute catabolic effects neither by HIIT nor by HVT.
    Keywords: Saliva ; Cortisol ; Testosterone ; Alpha-amylase ; Exercise
    ISSN: 1439-6319
    E-ISSN: 1439-6327
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  • 4
    Language: German
    In: German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research, 2018, Vol.48(1), pp.120-128
    Description: Hintergrund und Ziel: Das Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war die Analyse der Effekte einer 6-wöchigen Ausdauertrainingsintervention (hochintensives Intervalltraining [HIIT] vs. Grundlagenausdauer [GAT]) im Rahmen des Sportunterrichts auf motorische Leistung, subjektives Belastungsempfinden sowie psychische Stimmung von 11-jährigen Schüler/innen. Methoden: In 6 Wochen absolvierten 85 Schüler/innen (Alter: 11,9 ± 0,9 Jahre) 11 Trainingseinheiten HIIT (ca. 20 min, Intervalle von 10 s-4 min mit ca. 90-100 % der durchschnittlichen Laufgeschwindigkeit des 6-min-Laufes [vmittel]) oder GAT (30 min, Intervalle von 6-25 min mit ca. 65-85 % der vmittel). Vor und nach der Intervention wurden Körpergröße und -gewicht sowie die motorische Leistungsfähigkeit (20-m-Sprint, Standweitsprung, seitliches Hin- und Herspringen, Liegestütz, Sit-ups, 6-min-Lauf) ermittelt. Die individuell wahrgenommene Anstrengung während HIIT bzw. GAT wurde nach jedem Training mittels Session-RPE-Skala und die individuelle Stimmung mittels Befindlichkeitsfragebogen ermittelt. Ergebnisse: Die Laufdistanz im 6-min-Lauf (p ( 0,001; part. Eta-Quadrat = 0,473), 20-m-Sprint Zeit (p ( 0,001; part. Eta-Quadrat = 0,226), Standweitsprungweite (p ( 0,05; part. Eta-Quadrat = 0,056), Anzahl der Liegestütze (p ( 0,001; part. Eta-Quadrat = 0,523) und Sit-ups in 40 s (p ( 0,001; part. Eta-Quadrat = 0,146) verbesserten sich nach HIIT und GAT ohne signifikante Interaktion Zeit x Gruppe (mit Ausnahme der Anzahl der Sit-ups in 40 s [p ( 0,05; part. Eta-Quadrat = 0,048]). RPE (p ( 0,05) war höher und die Stimmung (p ( 0,05) positiver nach HIIT. Schlussfolgerungen: HIIT und GAT verbesserten die motorische Leistung gleichermaßen. Jedoch benötigte das HIIT im Vergleich zum GAT 30 % weniger Zeit. Da die Netto-Zeit im Sportunterricht limitiert ist, bietet HIIT eine neue Perspektive zur Verbesserung der Ausdauer und weiterer motorischer Leistungen von Schüler/innen. Die positive Stimmung nach HIIT unterstreicht die Anwendbarkeit von HIIT im Sportunterricht. (Autor). Background and aim: This study examined the effects of a 6-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs. low-intensity endurance training (LOW), applied during physical education on motor performance, mood and perceived exertion. Methods: Over a period of 6 weeks, 85 pupils (34 male; 51 female; age: 11.9 ± 0.9 years) performed 11 sessions of either HIIT (20 min, intervals from 10 s to 4 min at about 90-100% of average running speed of 6 min run [vmean]) or LOW (30 min, intervals from 6-25 min at about 65-85% vmean). Before and after the 6-week intervention each pupils' anthropometry and motor performance (20 m sprint, standing long-jump, lateral jumping from side to side, push-ups, sit-ups, 6 min run) were assessed. Session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded after each session and mood was assessed by questionnaire following the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 11th session. Results: RPE (p ( 0.05) was higher and mood more positive (p ( 0.05) with HIIT compared to LOW. Performances in the 6 min run (p ( 0.001; part. eta squared = 0.473), 20 m sprint (p ( 0.001; part. eta squared = 0.226), standing long-jump (p ( 0.05; part. eta squared = 0.056), push-ups (p ( 0.001; part. eta squared = 0.523) and sit-ups (p ( 0.001; part. eta squared = 0.146) improved following HIIT and LOW with no significant time x group interaction (except for the sit-ups [p ( 0.05; part. eta squared = 0.048]). Conclusions: HIIT and LOW improved the performances in 6 min run, 20 m sprint, standing long-jump and push-ups similarly. However, the improvements in HIIT compared to LOW were achieved in 30% less time. As time is limited in physical education classes, HIIT offers a new perspective for improving endurance and motor performance in children. The positive mood associated with HIIT demonstrates the applicability in physical education. (Autor).
    Keywords: Endurance training ; Children ; Anaerobic–lactic endurance training ; Physical education ; Continuous training
    ISSN: 2509-3142
    E-ISSN: 2509-3150
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Planta, 2018, Vol.247(1), pp.41-51
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-017-2767-8 Byline: Stefan Timm (1), Jonas Giese (1,3), Nadja Engel (1,4), Maria Wittmi[sz] (1), Alexandra Florian (2), Alisdair R. Fernie (2), Hermann Bauwe (1) Keywords: Aminomethyltransferase; Glycine cleavage system; Glycine decarboxylase; Overexpression; Photorespiration; Photosynthesis; T-DNA insertional lines Abstract: Main conclusion T-protein is present in large excess over the other proteins of the glycine cleavage system in leaves of Arabidopsis and therefore, exerts little control over the photorespiratory pathway. T-protein is the aminomethyltransferase of the glycine cleavage multienzyme system (GCS), also known as the glycine decarboxylase complex, and essential for photorespiration and one-carbon metabolism. Here, we studied what effects varying levels of the GCS T-protein would have on GCS activity, the operation of the photorespiratory pathway, photosynthesis, and plant growth. To this end, we examined Arabidopsis thaliana T-protein overexpression lines with up to threefold higher amounts of leaf T-protein as well as one knockdown mutant with about 5% residual leaf T-protein and one knockout mutant. Overexpression did not alter photosynthetic CO.sub.2 uptake and plant growth, and the knockout mutation was lethal even in the non-photorespiratory environment of air enriched to 1% CO.sub.2. Unexpectedly in light of this very low T-protein content, however, the knockdown mutant was able to grow and propagate in normal air and displayed only some minor changes, such as a moderate glycine accumulation in combination with somewhat delayed growth. Neither overexpression nor the knockdown of T-protein altered the amounts of the other three GCS proteins, suggesting that the biosynthesis of the GCS proteins is not synchronized at this level. We also observed that the knockdown causes less T-protein mostly in leaf mesophyll cells, but not so much in the vasculature, and discuss this phenomenon in light of the dual involvement of the GCS and hence T-protein in plant metabolism. Collectively, this work shows that T-protein is present in large excess over the other proteins of the glycine cleavage system in leaves of Arabidopsis and therefore exerts little control over the photorespiratory pathway. Author Affiliation: (1) Plant Physiology Department, University of Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Stra[sz]e 3, 18059, Rostock, Germany (2) Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Am MAaAaAeA hlenbe 1, 14476, Golm, Germany (3) Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Plant Physiology, WestfAaAaAeAnlische Wilhelms-UniversitAaAaAeAnt MAaAaAeA nster, Schlossplatz 7, 48149, MAaAa Germany (4) Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital Marburg, Baldingerstra[sz]e, 35043, Marburg, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 25/08/2017 Received Date: 14/06/2017 Accepted Date: 23/08/2017 Online Date: 02/09/2017 Article note: Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00425-017-2767-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Aminomethyltransferase ; Glycine cleavage system ; Glycine decarboxylase ; Overexpression ; Photorespiration ; Photosynthesis ; T-DNA insertional lines
    ISSN: 0032-0935
    E-ISSN: 1432-2048
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: European Food Research and Technology, 2014, Vol.239(4), pp.559-566
    Description: People suffering from food allergy rely on correct food labelling as the ingestion of minimal amounts of the respective allergen can trigger severe allergenic reactions. Probes for the detection of DNA from allergenic fish, shellfish and cephalopod species in food using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification were developed. The specificity and the sensitivity of the detection system were investigated. The limit of detection was 20 mg kg −1 for scallop, fish and bivalve species and 100 mg kg −1 for cephalopod, gastropod and crustacean species using self-prepared sushi spiked with the analytes in different concentration levels. The analysis of 10 commercial food samples demonstrates the applicability of the developed method and its suitability for food quality control. Therefore, the method can be used to monitor the compliance with labelling rules regarding food allergens.
    Keywords: Fish ; Seafood ; Food allergen ; Detection ; Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification
    ISSN: 1438-2377
    E-ISSN: 1438-2385
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2016, Vol.293(2), pp.391-398
    Description: Byline: Fabinshy Thangarajah (1), Thomas Einzmann (1), Florian Bergauer (2), Jan Patzke (3), Silke Schmidt-Petruschkat (3), Monika Theune (4), Katja Engel (3), Julian Puppe (1), Lisa Richters (1), Peter Mallmann (1), Verena Kirn (1) Keywords: Pap smear; Psychological impact; Cervical cancer screening Abstract: Purpose Invasive cervical cancer is today the fourth most common cancer of women in western civilization. Screening programs have led to a continuously decrease. Nevertheless, both screening and a positive test result are known to be associated with a negative psychological impact. Screening programs in European countries differ and thus psychological impact might as well. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological impact of women with an abnormal Pap smear in a German cohort. Methods Between July 2013 and May 2014, a self-assessment questionnaire was distributed to 595 patients that were referred to a special clinic for cervical dysplasia for further evaluation of an abnormal Pap smear. Patients were recruited in five different centers. Results Most patients (45.9 %) were informed about the test result via phone call by their doctor. 68.8 % of the patients felt anxious and 26.3 % even felt panic. After having talked to their physician, 51.4 % of our cohort still felt worried and only 24.4 % felt reassured. Concerning disease management, 48.4 % underwent a control Pap smear in 6 months. The preferred information source was the physician (63.9 %). Compared to the results in other European countries, our study cohort showed differences concerning age distribution, patients living in a partnership, number of children and especially disease management. Conclusion Cancer screening itself and abnormal test results have an impact on patient's feelings. To reduce the psychological impact, patients need to be better informed about the risks and benefits of cancer screening programs and in case of cervical cancer screening about the meaning of an abnormal test result. Our results underline the importance of a trustful physician--patient relationship in that matter. Author Affiliation: (1) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cologne, Kerpener Stra[sz]e 34, 50931, Cologne, Germany (2) Amedes MVZ for Gynecology and Pathology Munich GmbH, Maximillianstra[sz]e 38, 80539, Munich, Germany (3) MVZ Institute for Clinical Genetics, Pathology and Cytology Nordrhein GmbH in the Protestant Hospital of Oberhausen, Virchowstra[sz]e 20, 46047, Oberhausen, Germany (4) Amedes MVZ Wagnerstibbe for Gynecology, Reproductive Medicine, Cytology, Pathology and Internal Medicine, Hannoversche Str. 24, 31848, Bad Muenster, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 13/07/2015 Received Date: 14/04/2015 Accepted Date: 13/07/2015 Online Date: 23/07/2015 Article note: Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00404-015-3821-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Pap smear ; Psychological impact ; Cervical cancer screening
    ISSN: 0932-0067
    E-ISSN: 1432-0711
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2014, Vol.289(4), pp.755-763
    Description: Purpose Depression during and after pregnancy can have a negative impact on women’s quality of life and on the development of the newborn child. Interventions have been shown to have a positive influence on both mothers and children. Predictive factors for depressive symptoms might possibly be able to identify groups that are at high risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of socioeconomic factors in predicting depressive symptoms during and after pregnancy. Methods Depressiveness was measured using the German version of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at three time-points, in a prospective cohort study (n = 1,100). Visit 1 (Q1) was at study entry in the third trimester of the pregnancy, visit 2 (Q2) was shortly after birth, and visit 3 (Q3) was 6–8 months after birth. Depression scores were associated with socioeconomic factors and time in linear mixed models. Results Parity status, education status, monthly income, residential property status, and partnership status, as well as interactions between them, were found to be predictive factors for EPDS scores. The strongest factor influencing depressive symptoms was partnership status. Women who did not have an intact partnership had EPDS scores that were on average four points higher than in women with a partner at all three study visits (P 〈 0.000001). Conclusions Socioeconomic factors define subgroups that have different depression scores during and after pregnancy. Partnership status appears to be one of the most important influencing factors and could be useful for identifying women who should be offered an intervention to prevent possible negative effects on the mother or child.
    Keywords: Pregnancy ; Depression ; Socioeconomic factors ; Prediction
    ISSN: 0932-0067
    E-ISSN: 1432-0711
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2012, Vol.286(6), pp.1407-1412
    Description: To compare depressiveness scores, both during and after pregnancy, with the delivery mode (DM).In a longitudinal, prospective study, standardized questionnaires for the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were presented to 1,100 women and used to assess the presence and severity of depressiveness at three time points: prenatal, from the 30th gestational week (Q1); 48–72 h postnatal (Q2); and 6–8 months postnatal (Q3). The patients were divided into four groups relative to DM: spontaneous delivery, primary cesarean section (CS), secondary CS, and assisted vaginal delivery. The final number of participating women with both delivery mode and depression information for all three time points was 753.There was a significant difference of the mean EPDS values between the spontaneous delivery and primary CS groups (P = 0.04) at Q1 (5.1 vs. 6.3). None of the other comparisons was significant. Significant differences relative to DM were seen at Q2 (P 〈 0.0001), but there were no significant differences between the patient groups at Q3 (P = 0.54).DM only showed coherence with the extent of depression briefly during the peripartal period. A relationship was found between depressiveness during pregnancy and DM, with higher depressiveness scores in the group of patients undergoing primary CS. This should be taken into account when patients requesting an elective cesarean section are being counseled.
    Keywords: Depression ; Delivery mode ; Cesarean section ; Assisted vaginal delivery
    ISSN: 0932-0067
    E-ISSN: 1432-0711
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: World Journal of Urology, 2015, Vol.33(3), pp.343-350
    Description: Byline: Matthias May (1), Atiqullah Aziz (2,5), Sabine Brookman-May (3), Florian Roghmann (4), Joachim Noldus (4), Michael Rink (5), Felix Chun (5), Margit Fisch (5), Vladimir Novotny (6), Manfred Wirth (6), Roman Mayr (2,7), Armin Pycha (7), Antonin Brisuda (8), Bjorn Volkmer (9), Regina Stredele (9), Christopher Dechet (10), Stefan Vallo (11), Axel Haferkamp (11), Marco Schnabel (2), Stefan Denzinger (2), Jan Roigas (12), Christian G. Stief (3), Christian Gilfrich (1), Patrick J. Bastian (13), Jorg B. Engel (14), Maximilian Burger (2), Hans-Martin Fritsche (2) Keywords: Urothelial carcinoma; Bladder cancer; Radical cystectomy; Vaginal invasion; Uterine invasion; Prognosis Abstract: Purpose To evaluate for the first time the prognostic significance of female invasive patterns in stage pT4a urothelial carcinoma of the bladder in a large series of women undergoing anterior pelvic exenteration. Patients and methods Our series comprised of 92 female patients in total of whom 87 with known invasion patterns were eligible for final analysis. Median follow-up for evaluation of cancer-specific mortality (CSM) was 38 months (interquartile ranges, 21--82 months). The impact on CSM was evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis predictive accuracy (PA) was assessed by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results Vaginal invasion was noted in 33 patients (37.9 % group VAG), uterine invasion in 20 patients (23 % group UT), and infiltration of both vagina and uterus in 34 patients (39.1 % group VAG + UT). Groups VAG and UT significantly differed from group VAG + UT with regard to the presence of positive soft tissue margins (STM) only. Five-year-cancer-specific survival probabilities in the groups VAG, UT, and VAG + UT were 21, 20, and 21 %, respectively (p = 0.955). On multivariable analysis, only STM status (HR = 2.02, p = 0.023) independently influenced CSM. C-indices of multivariable models for CSM with and without integration of invasive patterns were 0.570 and 0.567, respectively (PA gain 0.3 %, p = 0.526). Conclusions Infiltration of the vagina, the uterus or both is associated with poor 5-year survival rates. With regard to CSM, no difference was detectable between patients with different invasion patterns, thus justifying further collectively including these invasive patterns as stage pT4a. Author Affiliation: (1) Department of Urology, St. Elisabeth Medical Centre Straubing, Straubing, Germany (2) Department of Urology, Caritas St. Josef Medical Centre, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany (3) Department of Urology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany (4) Department of Urology, Marienhospital Herne, Ruhr-University Bochum, Herne, Germany (5) Department of Urology, University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany (6) Department of Urology, University Hospital "Carl Gustav Carus", Dresden Technical University, Dresden, Germany (7) Department of Urology, General Hospital of Bolzano, Bolzano, Italy (8) Department of Urology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Motol University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic (9) Department of Urology, Kassel Medical Centre, Kassel, Germany (10) Division of Urology, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA (11) Department of Urology, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany (12) Department of Urology, Vivantes Medical Centre Im Friedrichshain and Am Urban, Berlin, Germany (13) Department of Urology, Paracelsus Medical Centre Golzheim, Dusseldorf, Germany (14) Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Caritas St. Josef Medical Centre, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 22/04/2014 Received Date: 18/03/2014 Accepted Date: 22/04/2014 Online Date: 10/05/2014 Article note: Matthias May and Atiqullah Aziz have contributed equally to this work.
    Keywords: Urothelial carcinoma ; Bladder cancer ; Radical cystectomy ; Vaginal invasion ; Uterine invasion ; Prognosis
    ISSN: 0724-4983
    E-ISSN: 1433-8726
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