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  • SpringerLink  (75)
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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Archiv der Mathematik, 1981, Vol.37(1), pp.278-284
    ISSN: 0003-889X
    E-ISSN: 1420-8938
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.367(1), pp.579-589
    Keywords: Litter fall manipulation ; Lignin degradation ; Fungi-to-bacteria ratio ; Temperate forest ; Field experiment
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2012, Vol.355(1), pp.407-416
    Keywords: Litter manipulation ; Dissolved organic matter ; Field experiment ; Soil organic matter
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.371(1), pp.267-279
    Keywords: Exchangeable K ; Non-exchangeable K ; Subsoil ; Illite ; Soil solution ; Ca
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Scientific Computing, 2017, Vol.70(3), pp.1390-1407
    Description: In this work, we propose a new way of splitting the flux function of the isentropic compressible Euler equations at low Mach number into stiff and non-stiff parts. Following the IMEX methodology, the latter ones are treated explicitly, while the first ones are treated implicitly. The splitting is based on the incompressible limit solution, which we call reference solution. An analysis concerning the asymptotic consistency and numerical results demonstrate the advantages of this splitting.
    Keywords: Flux splitting ; Isentropic Euler equations ; Low Mach ; IMEX ; Reference solution
    ISSN: 0885-7474
    E-ISSN: 1573-7691
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2018, Vol.433(1), pp.7-18
    Description: Acid detergent lignin (ADL), acetyl bromide (AcBr), and cupric oxide oxidation (CuO) were compared as methods for determining lignin concentration and quality in plant residues.These three methods were used to analyze 27 plant residues from different groups of species, i.e., legumes, crucifers, herbs, grasses, and trees.Median lignin concentrations of the 27 plant materials were 4.5% ADL and 6.0% AcBr lignin, significantly exceeding the median of 2.1% CuO lignin. ADL concentrations varied from 0.8 to 27.0%; those of AcBr and CuO lignin ranged from 1.8 to 12.2% and from 0.6 to 9.7%, respectively. AcBr lignin showed a significant negative, non-linear relationship with total N. In addition, the relationship of ADL and CuO data was negatively affected by total N.The ADL method is simple and well reproducible, and large datasets are available for comparison. The AcBr procedure is fast, with less interference from non-lignin products than ADL. The CuO method is not interfered with by any other organic component in the plant material and gives additional information on the composition of the lignin. However, the release of phenolic units may be incomplete.
    Keywords: Acetyl bromide ; Acid detergent lignin ; Cupric oxide oxidation ; Lignin determination
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 7
    Language: German
    In: Schmalenbachs Zeitschrift für betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung : ZfbF, 2010, Vol.62(7), pp. 797-820
    Description: Der Arbeitskreis Internes Rechnungswesen gibt einen Einblick in die wertorientierten Steuerungskonzepte der Unternehmen BASF, RWE, ThyssenKrupp, Volkswagen und BOSCH. Dabei wird deutlich, dass trotz aller Plausibilität und Einfachheit der Grundidee ihre Umsetzung in die Praxis schwierig ist und angepasst an die konkreten Rahmenbedingungen eines Unternehmens wie Größe, Risikoprofil und Ziele, aber auch in Abhängigkeit des historisch gewachsenen Steuerungsverständnisses eines Konzerns erfolgt. Das Bild der wertorientierten Steuerung fällt dementsprechend differenziert aus. Auch werden einige technische Umsetzungsfragen nach wie vor kontrovers diskutiert. The German working group Internes Rechnungswesen provides insight into value-based management concepts based on experience with BASF, RWE, ThyssenKrupp, Volkswagen and Bosch. It is shown that, in spite of the plausibility and simplicity of the basic idea underlying value-based management, the practical implementation remains challenging and always requires adjustments to suit the characteristics of corporations such as their size, risk profile or strategic goals as well as their management philosophy. Therefore, the findings regarding the utilization of value-based management vary considerably. Furthermore, some technical questions related to implementation, which are still controversial, are discussed.
    Keywords: Shareholder Value ; Rechnungswesen ; Deutschland
    ISSN: 03412687
    E-ISSN: 23666153
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Pediatrics, 2012, Vol.171(2), pp.337-345
    Description: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) caused by rotavirus (RV) is a common disease among infants and toddlers, often leading to hospitalization and, in resource-poor countries, to death. However, little is known on specific complications of severe RV-positive (RV+) AGE and on the clinical course in chronically ill children. This was a retrospective analysis of data for children 〈5 years of age hospitalized due to AGE during six rotavirus seasons in three large German pediatric hospitals. The primary study end point was the incidence and type of complications in RV+ versus RV-negative (RV−) cases. A total of 6,884 episodes of AGE in hospitalized children aged 〈5 years were included in this analysis. Of the 4,880 stools tested for RV, 2,118 (43.4%) were RV+. Hypernatremia was significantly more common in RV+ AGE ( P  〈 0.001) and was associated with severe disease, need for intensive care treatment, and longer duration of hospitalization. Metabolic disorders, particularly hypoglycemia, were more common in RV+ AGE. In contrast, symptoms such as respiratory infections, neurological, and abdominal symptoms were more common in children with RV− AGE. Conclusions: hypernatremia is a specific complication of RV+ AGE. RV would therefore appear to be the cause of infant toxicosis, the traditional descriptive term for severe dehydration and clinical deterioration following AGE.
    Keywords: Acute gastroenteritis ; Rotavirus ; Hospitalized children ; Complications ; Hypernatremia
    ISSN: 0340-6199
    E-ISSN: 1432-1076
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Oecologia, 2005, Vol.142(3), pp.335-343
    Description: Mass spectrometry-based proteomics was applied to analyze proteins isolated from dissolved organic matter (DOM). The focal question was to identify the type and biological origin of proteins in DOM, and to describe diversity of protein origin at the level of higher taxonomic units, as well as to detect extracellular enzymes possibly important in the carbon cycle. Identified proteins were classified according to their phylogenetic origin and metabolic function using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) protein and taxonomy database. Seventy-eight percent of the proteins in DOM from the lake but less than 50% in forest soil DOM originated from bacteria. In a deciduous forest, the number of identified proteins decreased from 75 to 28 with increasing soil depth and decreasing total soil organic carbon content. The number of identified proteins and taxonomic groups was 50% higher in winter than in summer. In spruce forest, number of proteins and taxonomic groups decreased by 50% on a plot where trees had been girdled a year before and carbohydrate transport to roots was terminated. After girdling, proteins from four taxonomic groups remained as compared to nine taxonomic groups in healthy forest. Enzymes involved in degradation of organic matter were not identified in free soil DOM. However, cellulases and laccases were found among proteins extracted from soil particles, indicating that degradation of soil organic matter takes place in biofilms on particle surfaces. These results demonstrate a novel application of proteomics to obtain a “proteomic fingerprint” of presence and activity of organisms in an ecosystem.
    Keywords: Carbon–Analysis ; DNA Fingerprinting–Methods ; Environmental Monitoring–Analysis ; Plant Proteins–Analysis ; Proteomics–Analysis ; Soil–Analysis ; Carbon ; Proteomics ; Proteins ; Mass Spectrometry ; Forest Soils ; Plant Proteins ; Soil ; Carbon;
    ISSN: 0029-8549
    E-ISSN: 1432-1939
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Biogeochemistry, 2005, Vol.72(3), pp.337-364
    Description: Organically bound species have been identified as prominent and mobile forms of nitrogen and phosphorus in soils. Since a large portion of sulphur (S) in soil is bonded to carbon (C) also dissolved organic S likely is a significant constituent in soil water. To investigate the role of dissolved organic forms in leaching and cycling of S in forest soils, we examined concentrations, fluxes, and chemical composition of organic S in forest floor leachates and in soil solutions of Rendzic Leptosols under 90-year-old European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) and Haplic Arenosols under 160-year-old Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) for 27 months. These soils are low in adsorbed SO 4 2- and receive little atmospheric S depositions at present. The chemical composition of organic S was estimated by fractionation with XAD-8 and wet-chemical characterisation (HI reduction) of binding forms. Although not as prominent as the organic forms of other nutrient elements, organic S proved to be an important contributor to S dissolved in forest floor leachates and in mineral soil solutions. Dissolved organic matter contained on average 29% of total S in forest floor leachates at the pine site and 34% at the beech site. The largest portion of organic S occurred in the subsoil solutions under beech in summer and autumn (up to 53%). Mean concentrations of organic S peaked (up to 1.1 mg l -1 ) in summer after rainstorms that followed dry periods. Fluxes with forest floor leachates and at 90 cm soil depth were largest in autumn because of huge amounts of rainfall. Organic S contributed significantly to the fluxes of S in the subsoils under beech comprising on average 39% of total dissolved S at 90 cm depth. Organic S produced in the forest floor layers was mainly in the hydrophilic fraction of dissolved organic matter (62 ± 6% at the pine site, 85 ± 4% at the beech site). The major binding form of organic S in the hydrophobic fraction was C-bonded S while in the hydrophilic fraction ester sulphate S, possibly associated with carbohydrates, was more prominent. Since the hydrophobic fraction increased in summer and autumn, C-bonded S was of greater importance during that time of the year than in winter and spring. With depth, concentrations and composition of organic S (and also of C) hardly changed at the pine site because of little retention of dissolved organic matter, presumably because of the small sorption capability of that soil. At the beech where organic C showed a marked decrease with depth, only a slight decrease in organic S, exclusively from the hydrophobic fraction, was found indicating that organic S was mobile compared with organic C. This was probably due to the concentration of S in the hydrophilic fraction of dissolved organic matter. Because of being concentrated in the mobile hydrophilic fraction, ester sulphate S was more mobile in the soil under beech than C-bonded S.
    Keywords: C-bonded sulphur ; Dissolved organic sulphur ; Ester sulphate sulphur ; Fluxes ; Seasonal variations ; XAD-8 fractionation
    ISSN: 0168-2563
    E-ISSN: 1573-515X
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