Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2016, Vol.18(10), pp.1-10
CeO 2 nanoparticles with various characteristics find an increasing number of applications in the electronic, medical, and other industries and are therefore likely released in the environment. This calls for investigations linking the physicochemical properties of these particles with their potential environmental impacts. In this study, CeO 2 nanoparticle powders were prepared using three different precursors [Ce(NO 3 ) 3 , CeCl 3 , and Ce(CH 3 COO) 3 ] and annealing temperatures (300, 500, and 700 °C). This procedure resulted in nine different types of nanoparticles with differing size (5–90 nm), morphology, surface Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ ratio, and slightly different crystal structures as characterized using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements with Rietveld refinement. These CeO 2 nanoparticles underwent toxicity testing at concentrations up to 64 mg L −1 using Daphnia magna . Toxic effects were observed for three particle types with EC50 values between 5 and 64 mg L −1 . No clear correlation was observed between the physicochemical properties (size, shape, oxygen occupancy, Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ ratio) of the nanoparticles and their toxicity. However, toxicity was correlated with the amount of Ce remaining suspended in the test medium after 24 h. This indicated that toxic effects may depend on the colloidal stability of CeO 2 nanoparticles during the first day of exposure. Therefore, being readily suspended and remaining stable for several days in the aquatic media increases the likelihood that CeO 2 nanoparticles will cause unwanted adverse effects.
CeO ; Ecotoxicity ; Daphnia magna ; XPS ; XRD ; Health and environmental effects
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