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  • 1
    Book
    Book
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology
    Description: Phosphorus in Action presents the latest information on biological processes in soil P cycling. Readers will find a discussion of spectroscopic techniques and the characterization of microbial P forms, as well as the use of tracers, molecular approaches and modeling of soil-plant systems. Phosphorus...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Biochemistry, General ; Plant Physiology ; Microbiology ; Agriculture ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISBN: 9783642152702
    ISBN: 3642152708
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology, Phosphorus in Action: Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling, pp.431-458
    Description: Phosphorus (P) is a limited resource and P deficiency limits crop production on large areas worldwide. Future food security, therefore, will largely depend on efficient P use in cropping systems. In this review, we present the impact of farmers’ interventions on biological P cycling in cropped soils of temperate and tropical regions, with emphasis on microbial functions in soil P dynamics. We exemplify the effects of (1) soil tillage, with a focus on the comparison of conventional tillage versus direct seeding systems; (2) fertilizer input, using organic and/or mineral nutrient sources; and (3) integration of legumes into cropping systems. We analyze whether and how biological processes can be influenced to increase the use efficiency of soil and fertilizer P. Finally, we formulate recommendations for an integrated P management. Future research should target improved biological access to recalcitrant inorganic and organic P forms.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Biochemistry, General ; Plant Physiology ; Microbiology ; Agriculture ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISBN: 9783642152702
    ISBN: 3642152708
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 3
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology, Phosphorus in Action: Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling, pp.371-406
    Description: The relatively few studies done on phosphorus (P) cycling in arid and semiarid lands (drylands) show many factors that distinguish P cycling in drylands from that in more mesic regions. In drylands, most biologically relevant P inputs and losses are from the deposition and loss of dust. Horizontal and vertical redistribution of P is an important process. P is concentrated at the soil surface and thus vulnerable to loss via erosion. High pH and CaCO3 limit P bioavailability, and low rainfall limits microbe and plant ability to free abiotically bound P via exudates, thus making it available for uptake. Many invasive plants are able to access recalcitrant P more effectively than are native plants. As P availability depends on soil moisture and temperature, climate change is expected to have large impacts on P cycling.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Biochemistry, General ; Plant Physiology ; Microbiology ; Agriculture ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISBN: 9783642152702
    ISBN: 3642152708
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 4
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology, Phosphorus in Action: Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling, pp.295-316
    Description: Organic phosphorus (P) is the predominant source of plant and microbial P in many arctic and alpine soils due to high moisture and low temperatures, which result in the accumulation of soil organic matter and P cycles dominated by biological processes. It has been hypothesized that the organic P accumulates in cold soils due to the inhibition of microbial activity by low temperatures. However, microbial activity has also been found to continue at low temperatures. Microbial biomass is one of the largest reservoirs of P in arctic and alpine soils, and a release of microbial P in the spring can be an important P flux. P availability in these soils is typically low during the growing season, but increases have been observed late in the growing season in arctic soils, probably due to root and microbial phosphatase activity. Fertilization studies in arctic and alpine ecosystems have had mixed results, with some plant communities typically responding more to P, whereas others are either nitrogen-limited or co-limited.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Biochemistry, General ; Plant Physiology ; Microbiology ; Agriculture ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISBN: 9783642152702
    ISBN: 3642152708
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 5
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology, Phosphorus in Action: Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling, pp.3-36
    Description: The most commonly used differentiation of soil phosphorus (P) is between inorganic and organic forms, despite the fact that this is only the beginning of soil P speciation. Forms of inorganic and organic soil P include a large range of specific P compounds, and spectroscopic techniques can offer the best potential for determining the speciation of soil organic P. The focus of this chapter is to summarise the relative merits of three spectroscopic techniques: solution and solid state 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). We aim to provide current and potential end-users of these techniques the ability to compare these methods on the basis of four criteria: sample preparation, sensitivity, resolution and quantitation.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Biochemistry, General ; Plant Physiology ; Microbiology ; Agriculture ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISBN: 9783642152702
    ISBN: 3642152708
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 6
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology, Phosphorus in Action: Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling, pp.93-111
    Description: Phosphorus cycling in soils is partly affected by biological processes. Many different organisms are involved, and microbial functions in particular make a substantial contribution. Recently, various molecular tools independent of microbial cultivation have been developed, offering new possibilities for the analysis of the function and ecology of microbes involved in phosphorus cycling. Plants are also directly or indirectly involved in biological phosphorus cycling. Molecular approaches are powerful for understanding plant functions and the plant–microbe interactions involved in phosphorus cycling. In this chapter, the application of molecular tools to the study of the role of plants and rhizosphere microorganisms in phosphorus cycling is discussed.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Biochemistry, General ; Plant Physiology ; Microbiology ; Agriculture ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISBN: 9783642152702
    ISBN: 3642152708
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 7
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology, Phosphorus in Action: Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling, pp.459-471
    Description: Phosphorus (P) is both an agent of global change, with P loads increasing in most global environments due to the loss of mined phosphate from agricultural, industrial, and urban environments, and is affected by global change processes such as land degradation or the need for P in biofuel production. P plays a fundamental role in food security and, because the only source for new P inputs to agriculture are phosphate rock deposits, P is a strategic, limited resource. Increasing the food supply for a growing world population requires additional P while sources are slowly being depleted. Sustainability of food, fiber, and fuel demands efforts towards maximizing the efficient use of this nutrient and defining priorities for its use. However, P is being used in production systems in such a way that large amounts of P leak into down-stream ecosystems. The negative effects of eutrophication are well known and occur now at a global scale. P use will have to be accompanied by greater efforts towards re-use, recycling, and strategic targeted applications.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Biochemistry, General ; Plant Physiology ; Microbiology ; Agriculture ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISBN: 9783642152702
    ISBN: 3642152708
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 8
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology, Phosphorus in Action: Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling, pp.407-429
    Description: Regional intensification of animal production has drastically changed the natural landscape and the ecological balance on millions of hectares of agricultural lands. Animal manure, which is a substantial source of environmental phosphorus (P), has accumulated and now often exceeds the nutrient utilization capacity of the plant production sector within watersheds with a high density of livestock feeding operations. How manure is handled, collected, stored, and disposed of determines the dominant types of transformations and bioavailability of the various P forms excreted in the manure (given the animal species and its diet). Livestock and poultry utilize feed P inefficiently, and unavoidable P excretion occurs even at recommended feeding levels. P excretion increases over and above that level, in proportion to the rise in dietary P intake. Although the use of dietary phosphohydrolases improves feed digestibility and recovery of feed organic P forms, the practice also increases the proportion of water-extractable P excreted in feces. The latter phenomenon may appear advantageous during the reuse of manure as a biofertilizer in crop production, but high levels of water-soluble P also present undue risk of dispersal and contamination of the environment. Linkages between production system characteristics and animal manures were examined to gain an improved understanding of management-induced transformations of manure P forms on the farm. Co-transformations of manure C and N influence the turnover of P and accumulation of water-extractable P in stored manures and amended soils. Mineralization of organic P forms occurs in manure in spite of elevated initial water-extractable P levels. A wide C:P molar ratio enhances manure organic P mineralization, given the need of manure-borne organisms to assimilate C substrates and obtain metabolic energy. P losses from animal production systems occur primarily via P transport in rainwater or snowmelt, and in water percolating through soil. The identification of likely loss pathways on grazinglands, animal production facilities, manure storage structures, and treated fields contributes to the development of comprehensive mitigation strategies to ultimately reduce the environmental footprint of animal agriculture.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Biochemistry, General ; Plant Physiology ; Microbiology ; Agriculture ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISBN: 9783642152702
    ISBN: 3642152708
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 9
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology, Phosphorus in Action: Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling, pp.169-198
    Description: Non-mycorrhizal microbial inoculants (biofertilizers) can potentially stimulate soil P cycling by solubilizing organic- and mineral-bound P. These P-solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) include a wide range of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, many of which are common in the rhizosphere. There appears to be two main PSM strategies for enhancing soil P availability, namely (1) the enhanced dissolution of P-containing minerals through a combination of soil acidification and the release of metal complexing agents (predominantly organic acid anions) and (2) the enzymatic breakdown of organic P. In terms of P cycling in natural environments, it is likely that strategy (2) is most important in terms of the annual flux of P through the plant–soil system. However, in highly P-limiting environments it is likely that strategy (1) becomes more important for mobilizing highly insoluble mineral-bound P. Field application of PSM have shown highly variable responses due to the fact that most PSM are not selected for their rhizosphere competence or for their ability to survive in different soil types.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Biochemistry, General ; Plant Physiology ; Microbiology ; Agriculture ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISBN: 9783642152702
    ISBN: 3642152708
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology, Phosphorus in Action: Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling, pp.59-91
    Description: The use of tracers is relevant to study the transformations of phosphorus (P) in the soil–plant system because (a) only a small fraction of the total soil P is rapidly circulating in this system, (b) P participates in many reactions in the soil, some occurring within a few seconds, others over years, and (c) P is distributed in many pools in the soil. This review presents the use of P radioisotopes (a) to probe pools and to study P transformations in soils, (b) to trace the fate of fertilizers in soil–plant systems, and (c) to assess the foraging strategies of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for P. Finally, we discuss the potential of analyzing the oxygen isotopes bound to P to study soil P dynamics and the research needed to achieve this aim.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Biochemistry, General ; Plant Physiology ; Microbiology ; Agriculture ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISBN: 9783642152702
    ISBN: 3642152708
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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