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  • 1
    Book
    Book
    Cham: Springer International Publishing
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the International Plant Sulfur Workshop
    Description: Intro -- Preface -- Acknowledgement -- Contents -- Foreword: The Value of Sulfur for Grapevine -- Introduction -- Sulfate Uptake and Assimilation -- Grapevine Sulfate Transporters -- Grapevine Sulfur Assimilation: Genes and Enzymes -- Regulation of Sulfate Assimilation -- Crosstalk Between Sulfur and the Antioxidant...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Plant Physiology ; Plant Biochemistry ; Plant Ecology ; Botany
    ISBN: 9783319201368
    ISBN: 3319201360
    ISSN: 24519073
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the International Plant Sulfur Workshop, Sulfur Metabolism in Plants: Mechanisms and Applications to Food Security and Responses to Climate Change, pp.203-215
    Description: Plants interact with sulfur in two different ways. As a macronutrient sulfur is needed for growth and development; at the same time, sulfur is an important substrate and reductant during various forms of stresses mediated by the abiotic environment. The use of sulfur compounds as substrate and/or reductant in compensation reactions of abiotic stresses including oxidative stress, heavy metal and xenobiotic exposure is discussed with special emphasis on the S-containing tri-peptide glutathione (GSH). The examples shown indicate that individual components of S metabolism are involved in different processes of abiotic stress compen‑sation. In the present review the current knowledge of GSH (i) as reductant in the compensation of oxidative stress, (ii) as reductant as well as a substrate in redox reactions, (iii) its direct and indirect involvement in posttranscriptional modification reactions, and (iv) its constitution as a substrate for chelating heavy metals and for conjugation of xenobiotic is discussed. Competition with plant development and growth is also considered.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Plant Sciences ; Plant Physiology ; Plant Biochemistry ; Agriculture ; Plant Ecology ; Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Botany
    ISBN: 9789400744493
    ISBN: 9400744498
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 3
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Progress in Botany, Progress in Botany 73, pp.161-188
    Description: A coordinated supply of the whole plant with sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) requires mechanisms to regulate not only uptake and assimilation but also long-distance transport of both nutrients in the phloem and xylem as well as the plant internal cycling of S and N compounds. In trees, plant internal nutrient cycling which includes bidirectional exchange between phloem and xylem allows to partially uncouple nutrient demand from soil supply and needs to be highly coordinated with seasonal storage and remobilisation of S- and N-compounds. In both annual and perennial plants the pools of N and S compounds cycling within the plant provide an integrated signal to adapt the nutrient supply of the plant to the actual demand.This review discusses the transport of N and S compounds in phloem and xylem, illustrates the quantitative importance and the physiological relevance of different N and S compounds transported and focuses on the exchange between the transport systems. Thereby we demonstrate similarities and differences between N and S in assimilation, transport, storage and the underlying regulatory mechanisms.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Plant Sciences ; Botany
    ISBN: 9783642227455
    ISBN: 3642227457
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the International Plant Sulfur Workshop, Sulfur Metabolism in Plants: Mechanisms and Applications to Food Security and Responses to Climate Change, pp.237-248
    Description: The effect of long-term exposure to elevated pCO2 concentrations on sulfate and nitrate assimilation was studied under field conditions using leaves from Quercus ilex and Quercus pubescens trees growing with ambient or elevated CO2 concentrations in the vicinity of three natural CO2 springs, Bossoleto, Laiatico and Sulfatara, in Tuscany, Italy. The activity of the key enzymes of sulfate assimilation, adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase (APR) and nitrate assimilation, nitrate reductase (NR), were measured together with the levels of acid soluble thiols, and soluble non-proteinogenic nitrogen compounds. Whereas NR activity remained unaffected in Q. ilex or increased Q. pubescence, APR activity decreased in the area of CO2 springs. The latter changes were often accompanied by increased GSH concentrations, apparently synthesized from H2S and SO2 present in the gas mixture emitted from the CO2 springs. Thus, the diminished APR activity in leaves of Q. ilex and Q. pubescence from spring areas can best be explained by the exposure to gaseous sulfur compounds. Although the concentrations of H2S and SO2 in the gas mixture emitted from the vents at the CO2 springs were low at the Bossoleto and Laiatico spring, these sulfur gases pose physiological effects, which may override consequences of elevated pCO2.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Plant Sciences ; Plant Physiology ; Plant Biochemistry ; Agriculture ; Plant Ecology ; Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Botany
    ISBN: 9789400744493
    ISBN: 9400744498
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the International Plant Sulfur Workshop, Sulfur Metabolism in Plants: Mechanisms and Applications to Food Security and Responses to Climate Change, pp.255-264
    Description: Drought stress mediated changes in sulfate transport processes, i.e. sulfate uptake and xylem loading of sulfate in the roots, and its dependency on mycorrhization and pCO2 were analyzed in young pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) trees. Withdrawal of water supply caused strong negative values of pre-dawn shoot water potential, indicating severe water stress. Elevated pCO2, but not mycorrhization transiently improved the water status of the trees. Sulfate uptake was largely independent from pre-dawn shoot water potential irrespective of mycorrhization and pCO2. In contrast, xylem loading of sulfate decreased with decreasing shoot water potential. Mycorrhization and – to a lesser extent – also elevated pCO2 improved xylem loading under drought stress. As a consequence, also relative xylem loading, i.e. the % amount of the sulfate taken up that was loaded into the xylem, was slightly improved. The positive effect of mycorrhization on xylem loading of sulfate under drought stress is surprising, since plants were inoculated with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria laccata that is not supposed to enter the vascular bundle of the root. Therefore, signaling by the fungus across the bundle sheath has to be assumed.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Plant Sciences ; Plant Physiology ; Plant Biochemistry ; Agriculture ; Plant Ecology ; Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Botany
    ISBN: 9789400744493
    ISBN: 9400744498
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 6
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the International Plant Sulfur Workshop, Sulfur Metabolism in Plants: Mechanisms and Applications to Food Security and Responses to Climate Change, pp.185-202
    Description: Food security is an issue that will continue to challenge agricultural production and the distribution of produce. While access to food has improved in the past couple of years the challenges of a changing climate, urbanization, and resource security will require attention to improving productivity within the current land resource. Fertilizers enable half the world’s food to be produced. Sulfur is important as an essential plant nutrient that assists with both the quantity and the quality of a range of plant products. It is also critical for animal nutrition. In crops, nitrogen and sulfur nutrition are closely tied and changes in N/S ratio can result in changes in grain quality. This balance, along with the role of nitrogen and phosphorus, indicate that sulfur is a key part of a balanced plant nutrition program to meet future food security. Grains represent the major depletion of sulfur in a national sulfur audit, followed by livestock, and a national audit suggests an annual sulfur removal of 0.4 kg S ha−1, similar to an audit from 1995. This is balanced by the input of sulfur containing fertilizer as well as the use of agricultural gypsum and manures and inputs from sulfur in irrigation water and the atmosphere. Much of the sulfur in soils is present in organic matter, which must be mineralized before plants can access it. Sulfate ions remain in soil solution and are readily leached, and with changing farming systems, the number of sulfur deficient soils is increasing. As a result, there has been a steady increase in the demand for sulfur for crop nutrition. There is a global supply of around 50 Mt of sulfur, with nearly all recovered from S-rich oil and gas with a growth of around 5% per annum predicted. 85% of sulfur is used for sulfuric acid production including the manufacture of a range of sulfur containing fertilizers such as ammonium sulfate and single superphosphate, although newer sulfur fortified products are entering the market. Attention to using the appropriate source of sulfur at the right rate and at the right time and place will be key strategies to help with sustainable food production now and in the future.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Plant Sciences ; Plant Physiology ; Plant Biochemistry ; Agriculture ; Plant Ecology ; Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Botany
    ISBN: 9789400744493
    ISBN: 9400744498
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 7
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the International Plant Sulfur Workshop, Sulfur Metabolism in Plants: Mechanisms and Applications to Food Security and Responses to Climate Change, pp.53-59
    Description: Cyanobacteria are representative photoautotrophic organisms that are capable of regulating metabolic pathways under varying light and nutritional conditions. We investigated this metabolic regulation under sulfur starvation with a focus on amino acid metabolism. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to quantify amino acid contents. The results revealed sulfur deprivation-induced temporal changes in the amount of free amino acids in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. This is the first study to report altered metabolite levels in response to sulfur starvation in cyanobacteria.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Plant Sciences ; Plant Physiology ; Plant Biochemistry ; Agriculture ; Plant Ecology ; Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Botany
    ISBN: 9789400744493
    ISBN: 9400744498
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 8
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the International Plant Sulfur Workshop, Sulfur Metabolism in Plants: Mechanisms and Applications to Food Security and Responses to Climate Change, pp.25-33
    Description: Sulfur is an essential macronutrient for plants with important roles in biological structure and function. Although it has long been known that sulfate uptake, assimilation and metabolism are highly controlled by sulfur availability, the detailed mechanism of regulation has only recently begun to be elucidated. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of plant response to sulfur limitation.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Plant Sciences ; Plant Physiology ; Plant Biochemistry ; Agriculture ; Plant Ecology ; Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Botany
    ISBN: 9789400744493
    ISBN: 9400744498
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 9
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the International Plant Sulfur Workshop, Sulfur Metabolism in Plants: Mechanisms and Applications to Food Security and Responses to Climate Change, pp.11-24
    Description: Sulfur remains an important issue on the agenda for crop plant nutrition. In addition to avoidance of sulfur deficiency, which will impact on yield and quality, there are requirements for adequate fertilization of crops for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Equally importantly, there are clear consequences for efficient nitrogen utilization and there are interactions with micronutrient acquisition (selenium and molybdenum). Substantial advances have been made at the cellular level, dissecting the signal transduction pathways linking cellular nutritional status with expression of sulfur regulated genes and pathways. However cellular processes need to be placed in the context of whole plant regulation of sulfur uptake and assimilation, which encompasses developmental, spatial and environmental factors, and which facilitates optimum growth and fecundity (and yield in the case of crops) with available sulfur supply. During development, adequate sulfur must be acquired for optimum growth, ideally with any excess being sequestered into re-mobilizable temporary stores. As the plant develops, efficient utilization of sulfur will require organ to organ transfer, and additionally degradation pathways, metabolic inter-conversions and multiple trans-membrane and vascular tissue mediated transport steps for both inorganic and organic sulfur compounds. For crops, efficient transfer of sulfur to harvested sink tissues and its incorporation into protein are important agronomic traits. Insufficient sulfur to meet the demand for growth results in a number of plant responses, targeted at optimising uptake and use of available sulfur. Notable early and specific responses are the up-regulation of transporters and key steps of the assimilatory pathways in sulfur-deficient tissues, and the allocation of resources to stimulate growth of root tissues compared to the shoots. These responses involving root proliferation and transporter functionality are adaptations to improve pedospheric sulfur acquisition. A long standing question has concerned the existence and nature of inter-organ signals of nutrient status. It is possible that local sulfur availability, coupled with intrinsic cell specific programmed function, is sufficient to mediate local gene and pathway expression, influence organ responses and effect whole plant sulfur management without inter organ signals. Developmental cues will influence organ specific pathways, most clearly demonstrated in processes of leaf senescence and associated nutrient remobilization. Conversely, the recognition of possibly mobile phloem located miRNAs may be indicative of long distance regulatory mechanisms. Similarly, root proliferation will almost certainly have a hormonal basis.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Plant Sciences ; Plant Physiology ; Plant Biochemistry ; Agriculture ; Plant Ecology ; Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Botany
    ISBN: 9789400744493
    ISBN: 9400744498
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the International Plant Sulfur Workshop
    Description: Intro -- Sulfur Metabolism in Plants -- Preface -- Contents -- Foreword: Exploring Interactions Between Sulfate and Nitrate Uptake at a Whole Plant Level -- Part I: Sulfur Metabolism – Mechanisms -- Part II: Sulfur Metabolism – Mineral Interactions -- Part III: Sulfur Metabolism – Food Security and Environmental...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Plant Sciences ; Plant Physiology ; Plant Biochemistry ; Agriculture ; Plant Ecology ; Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Botany
    ISBN: 9789400744493
    ISBN: 9400744498
    ISBN: 9789400797888
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