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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 01 January 2015, Vol.33(1), pp.51-7
    Description: To evaluate the performance of active surveillance as a management strategy in broad populations and to inform the development of surveillance schedules by individual patient data regarding timing and type of relapse. Retrospective study including data from 2,483 clinical stage I (CSI) patients, 1,139 CSI nonseminoma and 1,344 CSI seminoma managed with active surveillance, with the majority treated between 1998 and 2010. Clinical outcomes including relapse and death, time distribution, extent of relapse and method of relapse detection observed on active surveillance were recorded. Relapse occurred in 221 (19%) CSI-nonseminoma and 173 (13%) CSI-seminoma patients. Median time to relapse was 4 months (range, 2-61 months), 8 months (range, 2-77 months) and 14 months (range, 2-84 months) for lymphovascular invasion-positive CSI nonseminoma, lymphovascular invasion-negative CSI nonseminoma and CSI seminoma. Most relapses were observed within the first 2 years/3 years after orchiectomy for CSI nonseminoma (90%)/CSI seminoma (92%). Relapses were detected by computed tomography scan/tumor-markers in 87%/3% of seminoma recurrences, in 48%/38% of lymphovascular invasion-negative and 41%/61% of lymphovascular invasion-positive patients, respectively. 90% of CSI-nonseminoma and 99% of CSI-seminoma relapses exhibited International Germ Cell Collaborative Group good-risk features. Three patients with CSI nonseminoma died of disease (0.3%). One patient with CSI seminoma and two patients with CSI nonseminoma died because of treatment-related events. Overall, advanced disease was seen in both early- and late-relapse patients. All late recurrences were cured with standard therapy. Five-year disease-specific survival was 99.7% (95% CI, 99.24% to 99.93%). Active surveillance for CSI testis cancer leads to excellent outcomes. The vast majority of relapses occur within 2 years of orchiectomy for CSI nonseminoma and within 3 years for CSI seminoma. Late and advanced stage relapse are rarely seen. These data may inform further refinement of rationally designed surveillance schedules.
    Keywords: Neoplasm Recurrence, Local ; Seminoma -- Pathology ; Testicular Neoplasms -- Pathology
    E-ISSN: 1527-7755
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: European Urology, October 2017, Vol.72(4), pp.544-554
    Description: An early report on the molecular subtyping of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) by gene expression suggested that response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) varies by subtype. To investigate the ability of molecular subtypes to predict pathological downstaging and survival after NAC. Whole transcriptome profiling was performed on pre-NAC transurethral resection specimens from 343 patients with MIBC. Samples were classified according to four published molecular subtyping methods. We developed a single-sample genomic subtyping classifier (GSC) to predict consensus subtypes (claudin-low, basal, luminal-infiltrated and luminal) with highest clinical impact in the context of NAC. Overall survival (OS) according to subtype was analyzed and compared with OS in 476 non-NAC cases (published datasets). Gene expression analysis was used to assign subtypes. Receiver-operating characteristics were used to determine the accuracy of GSC. The effect of GSC on survival was estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression models. The models generated subtype calls in expected ratios with high concordance across subtyping methods. GSC was able to predict four consensus molecular subtypes with high accuracy (73%), and clinical significance of the predicted consensus subtypes could be validated in independent NAC and non-NAC datasets. Luminal tumors had the best OS with and without NAC. Claudin-low tumors were associated with poor OS irrespective of treatment regimen. Basal tumors showed the most improvement in OS with NAC compared with surgery alone. The main limitations of our study are its retrospective design and comparison across datasets. Molecular subtyping may have an impact on patient benefit to NAC. If validated in additional studies, our results suggest that patients with basal tumors should be prioritized for NAC. We discovered the first single-sample classifier to subtype MIBC, which may be suitable for integration into routine clinical practice. Different molecular subtypes can be identified in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Although cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves patient outcomes, we identified that the benefit is highest in patients with basal tumors. Our newly discovered classifier can identify these molecular subtypes in a single patient and could be integrated into routine clinical practice after further validation. Molecular subtypes in muscle-invasive bladder cancer appear have an impact on patient response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC); namely, patients with basal tumors showed the most benefit from NAC and should be prioritized for NAC. Moreover, these subtypes can be identified in a single sample by our discovered classifier.
    Keywords: Bladder Cancer ; Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy ; Molecular Subtypes ; Response Prediction ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0302-2838
    E-ISSN: 1873-7560
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  • 3
    In: Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M. Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T. R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Lee, Phil; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau Jr, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberly D.; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Chen, Ronald Y. L.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Ann Chong, Siow; Robert Cloninger, C.; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Del Favero, Jurgen; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Durmishi, Naser; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedl, Marion; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Genovese, Giulio; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Golimbet, Vera; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julià, Antonio; Kahn, René S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Ausrele Kucinskiene, Zita; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Kähler, Anna K.; Laurent, Claudine; Lee Chee Keong, Jimmy; Hong Lee, S.; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Macek Jr, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O’Callaghan, Eadbhard; O’Dushlaine, Colm; O’Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; Van Os, Jim; Endophenotypes International Consortium, Psychosis; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T.; Paunio, Tiina; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietiläinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Silagadze, Teimuraz; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; Smoller, Jordan W.; So, Hon-Cheong; Spencer, ChrisC. A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Scott Stroup, T.; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Söderman, Erik; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tosato, Sarah; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T.; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Williams, Nigel M.; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Wong, Emily H. M.; Wormley, Brandon K.; Simon Xi, Hualin; Zai, Clement C.; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R.; Stefansson, Kari; Visscher, Peter M.; Trust Case-Control Consortium, Wellcome; Adolfsson, Rolf; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Børglum, Anders D.; Cichon, Sven; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tõnu; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M.; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F.; Li, Qingqin S.; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N.; Petryshen, Tracey L.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P.; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C.; Sklar, Pamela; St Clair, David; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Wendland, Jens R.; Werge, Thomas; Daly, Mark J.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; O’Donovan, Michael C. (2014). Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci. Nature 511 (7510),
    Description: Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls. We identify 128 independent associations spanning 108 conservatively defined loci that meet genome-wide significance, 83 of which have not been previously reported. Associations were enriched among genes expressed in brain, providing biological plausibility for the findings. Many findings have the potential to provide entirely new insights into aetiology, but associations at DRD2 and several genes involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission highlight molecules of known and potential therapeutic relevance to schizophrenia, and are consistent with leading pathophysiological hypotheses. Independent of genes expressed in brain, associations were enriched among genes expressed in tissues that have important roles in immunity, providing support for the speculated link between the immune system and schizophrenia.
    Keywords: Genome-Wide Association ; Common Variants ; Bipolar Disorder ; Conferring Risk ; Disease ; Metaanalysis ; Mutations ; Drugs
    ISSN: 00280836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Nature, 2016, Vol.530(7589), pp.177-+
    Description: Schizophrenia is a heritable brain illness with unknown pathogenic mechanisms. Schizophrenia's strongest genetic association at a population level involves variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus, but the genes and molecular mechanisms accounting for this have been challenging to identify. Here we show that this association arises in part from many structurally diverse alleles of the complement component 4 (C4) genes. We found that these alleles generated widely varying levels of C4A and C4B expression in the brain, with each common C4 allele associating with schizophrenia in proportion to its tendency to generate greater expression of C4A. Human C4 protein localized to neuronal synapses, dendrites, axons, and cell bodies. In mice, C4 mediated synapse elimination during postnatal development. These results implicate excessive complement activity in the development of schizophrenia and may help explain the reduced numbers of synapses in the brains of individuals with schizophrenia
    Keywords: Article;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 5
    In: European Journal of Immunology, February 2017, Vol.47(2), pp.385-393
    Description: Checkpoint blockade of CTLA‐4 results in long‐lasting survival benefits in metastatic cancer patients. However, patients treated with CTLA‐4 blockade have suffered from immune‐related adverse events, most likely due to the breadth of the induced T‐cell activation. Here, we investigated the efficacy of a local low‐dose anti‐CTLA‐4 administration for treatment of subcutaneous or orthotopic murine bladder 49 (MB49) bladder carcinoma in C57BL/6 mice. When MB49 tumors were grown s.c., peritumoral (p.t.) injection of anti‐CTLA‐4 treatment was equally effective as intravenous or s.c. (nontumor bearing flank) administration. Notably, p.t. injection was associated with lower circulating antibody levels and decreased IL‐6 serum levels as compared to systemic treatment. Ultrasound‐guided intratumoral anti‐CTLA‐4 antibody treatment of orthotopically growing MB49 tumors resulted in tumor regression, with more than tenfold reduction in systemic antibody levels as compared to i.v. or s.c. administration, in line with the compartmentally restrained nature of the bladder. Local anti‐CTLA‐4 therapy in combination with anti‐PD‐1 therapy resulted in complete responses, superior to each therapy alone. In addition, p.t. anti‐CTLA‐4 therapy was potentiated by depletion of regulatory T cells. Our results demonstrate that local anti‐CTLA‐4 antibody therapy is equally effective as systemic administration, but reduces systemic antibody levels and cytokine release, and enhances the response to anti‐PD1 therapy. Local low‐dose administration of anti‐CTLA‐4 effectively restrains s.c. Murine bladder 49 (MB49) tumor growth and decreases circulating antibody levels. Intratumoral (i.t.) injection into orthotopically growing bladder tumors further decreases circulating antibody levels more than tenfold. Application of s.c. or i.t. low‐dose anti‐CTLA‐4 should therefore be investigated as a clinical delivery strategy to reduce adverse events associated with CTLA‐4 checkpoint blockade.
    Keywords: Bladder Cancer ; Checkpoint Inhibitors ; Ctla‐4 ; Immunotherapy ; Local Low‐Dose ; Mb49 ; Pd‐1
    ISSN: 0014-2980
    E-ISSN: 1521-4141
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, August 2014, Vol.53(8), pp.910-919
    Description: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (〉500 kb), rare (〈1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and the largest genome-wide CNV analysis in TS to date. The primary analyses used a cross-disorder design for 2,699 case patients (1,613 ascertained for OCD, 1,086 ascertained for TS) and 1,789 controls. Parental data facilitated a de novo analysis in 348 OCD trios. Although no global CNV burden was detected in the cross-disorder analysis or in secondary, disease-specific analyses, there was a 3.3-fold increased burden of large deletions previously associated with other neurodevelopmental disorders (  = .09). Half of these neurodevelopmental deletions were located in a single locus, 16p13.11 (5 case patient deletions: 0 control deletions,  = .08 in the current study,  = .025 compared to published controls). Three 16p13.11 deletions were confirmed de novo, providing further support for the etiological significance of this region. The overall OCD de novo rate was 1.4%, which is intermediate between published rates in controls (0.7%) and in individuals with autism or schizophrenia (2-4%). Several converging lines of evidence implicate 16p13.11 deletions in OCD, with weaker evidence for a role in TS. The trend toward increased overall neurodevelopmental CNV burden in TS and OCD suggests that deletions previously associated with other neurodevelopmental disorders may also contribute to these phenotypes.
    Keywords: Tourette Syndrome ; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder ; Copy Number Variation ; Genetics ; 16p13.11 ; Medicine ; Social Welfare & Social Work
    ISSN: 0890-8567
    E-ISSN: 1527-5418
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  • 7
    In: International Journal of Cancer, 15 December 2015, Vol.137(12), pp.2837-2845
    Description: The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of evidence suggest that alleles influencing breast cancer risk might also be associated with breast cancer survival. We examined the associations between 35 breast cancer susceptibility loci and the disease over‐all survival (OS) in 10,255 breast cancer patients from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) of which 1,379 died, including 754 of breast cancer. We also conducted a meta‐analysis of almost 35,000 patients and 5,000 deaths, combining results from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and performed analyses of SNPs with significant associations. In BPC3, the C allele of ‐rs3817198 was significantly associated with improved OS (HR=0.70; 95% CI: 0.58–0.85;  = 2.84 × 10; HR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55–0.92; HR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31–0.76;  = 1.45 × 10). , the C allele of ‐rs3817198 was predicted to increase expression of the tumor suppressor cyclin‐dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (). In the meta‐analysis, ‐rs3803662 was significantly associated with increased death hazard (HR =1.09; 95% CI: 1.04–1.15;  = 6.6 × 10; HR = 0.96 95% CI: 0.90–1.03; HR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09–1.35; =1.25 × 10). In conclusion, we show that there is little overlap between the breast cancer risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified so far and the SNPs associated with breast cancer prognosis, with the possible exceptions of ‐rs3817198 and ‐rs3803662. What's new? Genetic factors are known to influence the risk of breast cancer, but inherited genetic variation may also affect disease prognosis and response to treatment. In this study, the we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are known to be associated with breast cancer risk might also influence the survival of breast‐cancer patients. While two of the investigated SNPs may influence survival, there was otherwise no indication that SNP alleles related to breast cancer risk also play a role in the survival of breast cancer patients.
    Keywords: Breast Cancer ; Snp ; Survival ; Bpc3 ; Meta‐Analysis
    ISSN: 0020-7136
    E-ISSN: 1097-0215
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  • 8
    In: Nature Genetics, 2012, Vol.44(3), p.338
    Description: Coats plus is a highly pleiotropic disorder particularly affecting the eye, brain, bone and gastrointestinal tract. Here, we show that Coats plus results from mutations in CTC1, encoding conserved telomere maintenance component 1, a member of the mammalian homolog of the yeast heterotrimeric CST telomeric capping complex. Consistent with the observation of shortened telomeres in an Arabidopsis CTC1 mutant and the phenotypic overlap of Coats plus with the telomeric maintenance disorders comprising dyskeratosis congenita, we observed shortened telomeres in three individuals with Coats plus and an increase in spontaneous [gamma]H2AX-positive cells in cell lines derived from two affected individuals. CTC1 is also a subunit of the [alpha]-accessory factor (AAF) complex, stimulating the activity of DNA polymerase-[alpha] primase, the only enzyme known to initiate DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. Thus, CTC1 may have a function in DNA metabolism that is necessary for but not specific to telomeric integrity.
    Keywords: Gene Mutation – Health Aspects ; Gene Mutation – Research ; Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms – Research ; Telomeres – Physiological Aspects ; Telomeres – Research ; Genetic Disorders – Research;
    ISSN: 1061-4036
    E-ISSN: 15461718
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  • 9
    In: International Journal of Epidemiology, 2015, Vol. 44(5), pp.1706-1721
    Description: Background: A long-standing epidemiological puzzle is the reduced rate of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in those with schizophrenia (SZ) and vice versa. Traditional epidemiological approaches to determine if this negative association is underpinned by genetic factors would test for reduced rates of one disorder in relatives of the other, but sufficiently powered data sets are difficult to achieve. The genomics era presents an alternative paradigm for investigating the genetic relationship between two uncommon disorders. Methods: We use genome-wide common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from independently collected SZ and RA case-control cohorts to estimate the SNP correlation between the disorders. We test a genotype X environment (GxE) hypothesis for SZ with environment defined as winter- vs summer-born. Results: We estimate a small but significant negative SNP-genetic correlation between SZ and RA (−0.046, s.e. 0.026, P  = 0.036). The negative correlation was stronger for the SNP set attributed to coding or regulatory regions (−0.174, s.e. 0.071, P  = 0.0075). Our analyses led us to hypothesize a gene-environment interaction for SZ in the form of immune challenge. We used month of birth as a proxy for environmental immune challenge and estimated the genetic correlation between winter-born and non-winter born SZ to be significantly less than 1 for coding/regulatory region SNPs (0.56, s.e. 0.14, P  = 0.00090). Conclusions: Our results are consistent with epidemiological observations of a negative relationship between SZ and RA reflecting, at least in part, genetic factors. Results of the month of birth analysis are consistent with pleiotropic effects of genetic variants dependent on environmental context.
    Keywords: Schizophrenia ; Rheumatoid Arthritis ; Genetic Relationship ; Pleiotropy
    ISSN: 0300-5771
    E-ISSN: 1464-3685
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Nature genetics, 2015, Vol.47(3), pp.291-+
    Description: Both polygenicity (many small genetic effects) and confounding biases, such as cryptic relatedness and population stratification, can yield an inflated distribution of test statistics in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, current methods cannot distinguish between inflation from a true polygenic signal and bias. We have developed an approach, LD Score regression, that quantifies the contribution of each by examining the relationship between test statistics and linkage disequilibrium (LD). The LD Score regression intercept can be used to estimate a more powerful and accurate correction factor than genomic control. We find strong evidence that polygenicity accounts for the majority of the inflation in test statistics in many GWAS of large sample size
    Keywords: Linkage Disequilibrium ; Genome-Wide Association Study -- Methods;
    ISSN: 1061-4036
    ISSN: 1546-1718
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