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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 2007, Vol.208(1), pp.17-24
    Description: Standard ecology textbooks typically maintain that nutrients cycle, but energy flows in unidirectional chains. However, here we use a new metric that allows for the identification and quantification of cyclic energy pathways. Some of these important pathways occur due to the contribution of dead organic matter to detrital pools and those organisms that feed on them, reintroducing some of that energy back into the food web. Recognition of these cyclic energy pathways profoundly impacts many aspects of ecology such as trophic levels, control, and the importance of indirect effects. Network analysis, specifically the maximum eigenvalue of the connectance matrix, is used to identify both the presence and strength of these structural cycles.
    Keywords: Cycling ; Detritus ; Energy Flow ; Food Webs ; Network Analysis ; Trophic Dynamics ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 2007, Vol.208(1), pp.9-16
    Description: Food webs are constructed as structural directed graphs that describe “who eats whom,” but it is common to interpret them as energy flow diagrams where predation represents an energy transfer from the prey to the predator. It is the aim of this work to demonstrate that food webs are incomplete as energy flow diagrams if they ignore passive flows to detritus (dead organic material). While many ecologists do include detritus in conceptual and mathematical models, the detrital omission is still commonly found. Often detritus is either ignored or treated as an unlimited energy source, yet all organisms contribute to the detritus pool, which can be an energy source for other species in the system. This feedback loop is of high importance, since it increases the number of pathways available for energy flows, revealing the significance of indirect effects, and making the functional role of the top predators less clear. In this work we propose the by adding a detritus compartment to the . We demonstrate the effect of structural loops that result from feeding on detritus, by comparing empirical data sets to five different assembly models: (1) , (2) , (3) , (4) (original in this work), and (5) . Of these models, only the last two explicitly include detritus. We show that when passive flows to detritus are included in the food web structure, the structure becomes more robust to the removal of individual nodes or connections. In addition, we show that food web models that include the detritus feedback loop perform better with respect to several structural network metrics.
    Keywords: Niche Model ; Detritus ; Food Webs ; Energy Cycles ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Ecosystem Services, August 2015, Vol.14, pp.12-23
    Description: Forests support human economy and well-being with multiple ecosystem services. In this paper, the ecosystem services generated in a mountainous forest area in North Italy were assessed in biophysical and monetary units. GIS was used to analyze and visualize the distribution and provision of different services. The assessment of ecosystem services in biophysical units was an important step to investigate ecosystem functions and actual service flows supporting socio-ecological systems. The Total Economic Value (TEV) of all the investigated ecosystem services was about 33 M€/yr, corresponding to 820 €/ha/yr. The provisioning services represented 40% of the TEV while the regulating and cultural services were 49% and 11%. The service of hydrogeological protection, particularly important in areas characterized by a high risk of avalanches and landslides, showed a major importance among the regulating services (81%) and within the TEV (40%). Results from mapping ecosystem services were useful in identifying and visualizing priority areas for different services, as well as exploring trade-offs and synergies between services. Finally, we argue that while a biophysical perspective can ensure a solid accounting base, a comprehensive economic valuation of all categories of forest ecosystem services can facilitate communication of their importance to policy makers.
    Keywords: Forest ; Ecosystem Services ; Biophysical Assessment ; Total Economic Value ; Gis Mapping ; Trade-Off Analysis ; Ecology
    ISSN: 2212-0416
    E-ISSN: 2212-0416
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Encyclopedia of Ecology, Five-volume set, pp.2707-2709
    Description: Pheromones are chemical signals, that is, carriers of information between individuals within a species. Pheromones induce a physiological or behavioral response in the receiving individual, and often play a crucial role in mate finding and other interactions...
    Keywords: Attractant ; Behavior ; Chemical Communication ; Pest Control ; Pest Management ; Population Monitoring ; Semiochemicals ; Naturvetenskap ; Biologi ; Zoologi ; Natural Sciences ; Biological Sciences ; Zoology ; Naturvetenskap ; Biologi ; Natural Sciences ; Biological Sciences
    ISBN: 978-008045405-4
    Source: SwePub (National Library of Sweden)
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