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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 01 June 2015, Vol.6(6), pp.1949-1965
    Description: A major argument for incorporating deciduous tree species in coniferous forest stands is their role in the amelioration and stabilisation of biogeochemical cycles. Current forest management strategies in central Europe aim to increase the area of mixed stands. In order to formulate statements about the ecological effects of mixtures, studies at the stand level are necessary. In a mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) in the Ore Mountains (Saxony, Germany), the effects of these two tree species on chemical and microbial parameters in the topsoil were studied at one site in the form of a case study. Samples were taken from the O layer and A horizon in areas of the stand influenced by either birch, spruce or a mixture of birch and spruce. The microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic quotient, pH-value and the C and N contents and stocks were analysed in the horizons Of, Oh and A. Significantly higher contents of microbial N were observed in the Of and Oh horizons in the birch and in the spruce-birch strata than in the stratum containing only spruce. The same was found with respect to pH-values in the Of horizon and basal respiration in the Oh horizon. Compared to the spruce stratum, in the birch and spruce-birch strata, significantly lower values were found for the contents of organic C and total N in the A horizon. The findings of the case study indicated that single birch trees have significant effects on the chemical and microbial topsoil properties in spruce-dominated stands. Therefore, the admixture of birch in spruce stands may distinctly affect nutrient cycling and may also be relevant for soil carbon sequestration. Further studies of these functional aspects are recommended.
    Keywords: Birch ; Spruce ; Tree Species Effects ; Ph-Value ; Soil Respiration ; Humus ; Topsoil ; Forestry
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 2000, Vol.132(1), pp.111-119
    Description: European Forest Ecosystem Research Network (EFERN), was set up in 1996 as one result of the Ministerial Conferences on the Protection of European Forests in Strasbourg 1990 and Helsinki 1993 with the aim of promoting ecological research for sustainable forest management. Three plenary meetings were held, each with a specific theme. The results of these meetings have been documented in 10 chapters in a volume with the title 'Pathways to the wise use of forests in Europe'. The intention was also to give priorities for future forest ecosystem research. In accepting the idea that sustainability includes a multifunctional view of forests, there is a need to find ways of integrating classical forest ecosystem research with biodiversity, water quality and socio-economics. The balancing of the different interests in the forests can be done through planning. From this results also a choice of adequate management methods of the forest resources. The classical stand level in forestry requires now an additional scale -- the landscape level. The aim with this paper is to present a concept which attempts to integrate the disciplines involved -- ecosystem and landscape ecology and its components. Areas where research efforts are central are also mentioned.
    Keywords: Ecosystem and Landscape Forestry ; Sustainability ; Biodiversity ; Sustainable Biomass Production ; Water Quality ; Forest Management ; Socio-Economics ; Planning ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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