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  • 1
    In: Ecohydrology, September 2018, Vol.11(6), pp.n/a-n/a
    Description: By applying the newly developed flow cell (FC) concept, this study investigated the impact of small‐scale spatial variations (millimetre to centimetre) in organic matter (OM) composition (diffusive reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy), biological activity (zymography), and wettability (contact angle [CA]) on transport processes (tracer experiments, radiography). Experiments were conducted in five undisturbed soil slices (millimetre apart), consisting of a sandy matrix with an embedded loamy band. In the loamy band increased enzyme activities and OM (10 mm apart) were found compared with the sand matrix, with no interrelations although spatial autocorrelation ranges were up to 7 cm. CAs were increased (0–110°) above the loamy band and were negatively correlated with acid phosphatase. Missing correlations were probably attributed to texture variations between soil slices. A general correlation between CA and C content (bulk) were confirmed. Variability in texture and hydraulic properties led to the formation of heterogeneous flow patterns and probably to heterogeneously distributed interfacial properties. The new FC concept allows process evaluation on the millimetre scale to analyse spatial relations, that is, between small‐scale textural changes on transport processes and biological responses. The concept has been proved as a versatile tool to analyse spatial distribution of biological and interfacial soil properties in conjunction with the analysis of complex micro‐hydraulic processes for undisturbed soil samples. The concept may be improved by additional nondestructive imaging methods, which is especially challenging for the detection of small‐scale textural changes.
    Keywords: Drift Spectroscopy ; Extracellular Enzyme Activity ; Flow Cell ; Soil Water Repellency ; Transport Processes ; Undisturbed Soil ; X‐Ray Radiography
    ISSN: 1936-0584
    E-ISSN: 1936-0592
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  • 2
    In: Land Degradation & Development, September 2018, Vol.29(9), pp.3112-3126
    Description: Bioeconomy strategies have been adopted in many countries around the world. Their sustainable implementation requires a management of soils that maintains soil functions and avoids land degradation. Only then, ecosystem services can be maintained and resources used efficiently. We present an analytical framework for impact assessment that links policy and technology driving forces for soil management decisions to soil processes, soil functional changes, and their impacts on ecosystem services and resource use efficiency, both being targets that have been set by society and are anchored in bioeconomy policy strategies and sustainable development goals. Although the resource use efficiency concept has a long‐term tradition, most studies of agricultural management do not address the role of soils in their efficiency assessment. The concept of ecosystem services has received increasing attention over the last years; however, its link to soil functions and soil management practices is still not well established. This study is the first to conceptually link the socioeconomic processes of external drivers for soil management with the natural processes of soil functions and connect them back to impacts on the social system. Application of the framework helps strengthen the science‐policy interface and to systemically assess and compare the opportunities and threats of soil management practices from the perspective of goals set by society at different spatial and temporal scales. Insights gained in this way can be applied in stakeholder decision‐making processes and used to inform the design of governance instruments aimed at sustainable soil management within a bioeconomy.
    Keywords: Bioeconomy ; Ecosystem Services ; Impact Assessment ; Resource Use Efficiency ; Soil Management Practices ; Sustainable Development Goals
    ISSN: 1085-3278
    E-ISSN: 1099-145X
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  • 3
    In: International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology, May 2018, Vol.15(3), pp.716-722
    Description: Oxide multilayer thermoelectric generators () were fabricated, using the standard multilayer technology. Green tapes of p‐type LaCuO and n‐type NdCuO thermoelectric oxides were stacked with intermediate insulating glass layers. Electrical contacts between thermoelectric oxides were applied, using screen‐printing of AgPd paste, and multilayers were cofired at 1000°C. However, cofiring of four different materials turned out to be very challenging, and contact resistance problems frequently led to device malfunctions. We developed a new concept of a transversal multilayer thermoelectric generator (), which is characterized by a simple design. This generator is build up by stacking layers of a p‐ or n‐type thermoelectric oxide and printing stripes of AgPd paste onto the thermoelectric layers at an angle with respect to the temperature gradient. Transversal multilayer thermoelectric generators were fabricated using p‐type LaCuO, or n‐type substituted CaMnO; cofiring of the multilayer stacks was performed at 1000°C. The based upon p‐type lanthanum cuprate exhibits a power output of 7.8 mW at ∆= 200 K in the low temperature range of 25‐135°C. Materials issues, cofiring characteristics, design and the thermoelectric performance of multilayer s will be discussed.
    Keywords: Cofiring ; Multilayer Thermoelectric Generators ; Oxide Thermoelectrics ; Transversal Thermoelectric Effect
    ISSN: 1546-542X
    E-ISSN: 1744-7402
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