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  • Wiley (CrossRef)  (73)
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  • 1
    Description: On November 28, 2012 lexander (lex) öhm, a bacterial geneticist, died at age 41, only a few months after taking up a position as an assistant professor at the enter for ynthetic icrobiology in arburg, ermany. Earlier in 2012 lex had been diagnosed with an aggressive form of thyroid cancer that left him little time to live his scientific and personal dreams.
    Keywords: Bohm, Alexander ; Deaths ; Biologists;
    ISSN: 0950-382X
    E-ISSN: 1365-2958
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  • 2
    In: Molecular Microbiology, April 2012, Vol.84(1), pp.1-5
    Description: The transcription factor CsgD governing the production of curli fimbriae and cellulose is a key player in the complex regulatory circuit that decides whether form biofilms. The gene itself is tightly controlled at the level of transcription by a large array of DNA‐binding proteins, but what happens after transcription is less understood. In this issue of , Jørgensen (2012), Mika (2012) and Thomason (2012) report on small RNAs (McaS, RprA and GcvB) that together with the RNA‐chaperone Hfq regulate the mRNAs of and other biofilm genes, and illustrate the burgeoning concept that the 5′ region of bacterial mRNA serves as a hub for sRNA‐mediated signal integration at the post‐transcriptional level.
    Keywords: Transcription (Genetics) ; Proteins ; Messenger Rna ; Genes ; Cellulose;
    ISSN: 0950-382X
    E-ISSN: 1365-2958
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  • 3
    In: Molecular Microbiology, December 2010, Vol.78(6), pp.1327-1331
    Description: Although most bacterial small RNAs act to repress target mRNAs, some also activate messengers. The predominant mode of activation has been seen in ‘anti‐antisense’ regulation whereby a small RNA prevents the formation of an inhibitory 5′ mRNA structure that otherwise impairs translational initiation and protein synthesis. The translational activation might also stabilize the target yet this was considered a secondary effect in the examples known thus far. Two recent papers in investigate post‐transcriptional activation of collagenase mRNA by VR‐RNA, and streptokinase mRNA by FasX RNA, to suggest that small RNAs exert positive regulation of virulence genes primarily at the level of mRNA stabilization.
    Keywords: Protein Synthesis ; Messenger Rna;
    ISSN: 0950-382X
    E-ISSN: 1365-2958
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  • 4
    In: Molecular Microbiology, November 2011, Vol.82(4), pp.797-806
    Description: Founded on ground‐breaking discoveries such as the operon model by Jacob and Monod more than 50 years ago, molecular microbiology is now one of the most vibrant disciplines of the life sciences. The first Mol Micro Meeting Würzburg (‘M3W’) hosted more than 160 scientists from 14 countries to exchange their latest ideas in this field of research. Divided into the four main sessions Gene Regulation, Pathogenesis, Microbial Cell Biology and Signalling, the conference provided insight into current advances and future goals and challenges.
    Keywords: Microbiology ; Life Sciences ; Scientists ; Bacteria;
    ISSN: 0950-382X
    E-ISSN: 1365-2958
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  • 5
    In: Molecular Microbiology, September 2009, Vol.73(5), pp.737-741
    Description: Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are well known to command bacterial protein synthesis by modulating the translation and decay of target mRNAs. Most sRNAs are specifically regulated by a cognate transcription factor under certain growth or stress conditions. Investigations of the conserved Hfq‐dependent MicM sRNA in (article by Poul Valentin‐Hansen and colleagues in this issue of ) and in have unravelled a novel type of gene regulation in which the chitobiose operon mRNA acts as an RNA trap to degrade the constitutively expressed MicM sRNA, thereby alleviating MicM‐mediated repression of the synthesis of the YbfM porin that is required for chitosugar uptake. The results suggest that ‘target’ mRNAs might be both prey and also predators of sRNAs.
    Keywords: Protein Synthesis ; Messenger Rna;
    ISSN: 0950-382X
    E-ISSN: 1365-2958
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  • 6
    In: Molecular Microbiology, January 2009, Vol.71(1), pp.1-11
    Description: species are enterobacterial pathogens that have been exceptionally well investigated with respect to virulence mechanisms, microbial pathogenesis, genome evolution and many fundamental pathways of gene expression and metabolism. While these studies have traditionally focused on protein functions, has also become a model organism for RNA‐mediated regulation. The present review is dedicated to the non‐coding RNA world of : it covers small RNAs (sRNAs) that act as post‐transcriptional regulators of gene expression, novel Salmonella ‐regulatory RNA elements that sense metabolite and metal ion concentrations (or temperature), and globally acting RNA‐binding proteins such as CsrA or Hfq (inactivation of which cause drastic phenotypes and virulence defects). Owing to mosaic genome structure, some of the sRNAs are widely conserved in bacteria whereas others are very specific to species. Intriguingly, sRNAs of either type (CsrB/C, InvR, SgrS) facilitate cross‐talk between the core genome and its laterally acquired virulence regions. Work in also identified physiological functions (and mechanisms thereof) of RNA that had remained unknown in , and pioneered the use of high‐throughput sequencing technology to identify the sRNA and mRNA targets of bacterial RNA‐binding proteins.
    Keywords: Metabolites ; Proteins ; Messenger Rna ; Salmonella ; Gene Expression;
    ISSN: 0950-382X
    E-ISSN: 1365-2958
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  • 7
    In: Molecular Microbiology, September 2011, Vol.81(5), pp.1144-1165
    Description: GcvB is one of the most highly conserved Hfq‐associated small RNAs in Gram‐negative bacteria and was previously reported to repress several ABC transporters for amino acids. To determine the full extent of GcvB‐mediated regulation in , we combined a genome‐wide experimental approach with biocomputational target prediction. Comparative pulse expression of wild‐type versus mutant sRNA variants revealed that GcvB governs a large post‐transcriptional regulon, impacting ∼1% of all genes via its conserved G/U‐rich domain R1. Complementary predictions of C/A‐rich binding sites in mRNAs and reporter fusion experiments increased the number of validated GcvB targets to more than 20, and doubled the number of regulated amino acid transporters. Unlike the previously described targeting via the single R1 domain, GcvB represses the glycine transporter CycA by exceptionally redundant base‐pairing. This novel ability of GcvB is focused upon the one target that could feedback‐regulate the glycine‐responsive synthesis of GcvB. Several newly discovered mRNA targets involved in amino acid metabolism, including the global regulator Lrp, question the previous assumption that GcvB simply acts to limit unnecessary amino acid uptake. Rather, GcvB rewires primary transcriptional control circuits and seems to act as a distinct regulatory node in amino acid metabolism.
    Keywords: Glycine -- Physiological Aspects ; Genetic Research -- Physiological Aspects ; Genomics -- Physiological Aspects ; Messenger Rna -- Physiological Aspects;
    ISSN: 0950-382X
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  • 8
    In: Molecular Microbiology, May 2012, Vol.84(3), pp.428-445
    Description: MicF is a textbook example of a small regulatory RNA (sRNA) that acts on a ‐encoded target mRNA through imperfect base pairing. Discovery of MicF as a post‐transcriptional repressor of the major porin OmpF established the paradigm for a meanwhile common mechanism of translational inhibition, through antisense sequestration of a ribosome binding site. However, whether MicF regulates additional genes has remained unknown for almost three decades. Here, we have harnessed the new superfolder variant of GFP for reporter–gene fusions to validate newly predicted targets of MicF in . We show that the conserved 5′ end of MicF acts by seed pairing to repress the mRNAs of global transcriptional regulator Lrp, and periplasmic protein YahO, while a second targeting region is also required to regulate the mRNA of the lipid A‐modifying enzyme LpxR. Interestingly, MicF targets at both the ribosome binding site and deep within the coding sequence. MicF binding in the coding sequence of decreases mRNA stability through exacerbating the use of a native RNase E site proximal to the short MicF‐ duplex. Altogether, this study assigns the classic MicF sRNA to the growing class of Hfq‐associated regulators that use diverse mechanisms to impact multiple loci.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Bacterial Proteins -- Genetics ; Green Fluorescent Proteins -- Metabolism ; Porins -- Genetics ; RNA, Bacterial -- Metabolism ; RNA, Small Untranslated -- Metabolism ; Salmonella Typhimurium -- Metabolism;
    ISSN: 0950-382X
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  • 9
    In: Molecular Microbiology, October 2009, Vol.74(2), pp.261-269
    Description: A recent meeting on ‘Regulatory RNAs in prokaryotes’ reflected the growing interest in this research topic. Almost 200 scientists met to discuss the identification, structure, function and mechanistic details of regulatory RNAs in bacteria and archaea. The topics included small regulatory RNAs, riboswitches, RNA thermosensors and CRISPR (lustered egularly nterspaced hort alindromic epeats) elements.
    Keywords: Rna;
    ISSN: 0950-382X
    E-ISSN: 1365-2958
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  • 10
    In: Molecular Microbiology, December 2009, Vol.74(6), pp.1497-1512
    Description: Exposure to oxygen and light generates photooxidative stress by the bacteriochlorophyll mediated formation of singlet oxygen (O) in . Our study reports the genome‐wide search for small RNAs (sRNAs) involved in the regulatory response to O. By using 454 pyrosequencing and Northern blot analysis, we identified 20 sRNAs from aerobic cultures or following treatment with O or superoxide (O). One sRNA was specifically induced by O and its expression depends on the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor RpoE. Two sRNAs induced by O and O were cotranscribed with upstream genes preceded by promoters with target sequences for the alternative sigma factors RpoH and RpoH. The most abundant sRNA was processed in the presence of O but not by O. From this and a second sRNA a conserved 3′‐segment accumulated from a larger precursor. Absence of the RNA chaperone Hfq changed the half‐lives, abundance and processing of O‐affected sRNAs. Orthologues of three sRNA genes are present in different alpha‐proteobacteria, but the majority was unique to or species. Our discovery that abundant sRNAs are affected by O exposure extends the knowledge on the role of sRNAs and Hfq in the regulatory response to oxidative stress.
    Keywords: Active Oxygen -- Analysis ; Genomics -- Analysis ; Molecular Chaperones -- Analysis ; Rna -- Analysis ; Superoxides -- Analysis;
    ISSN: 0950-382X
    E-ISSN: 1365-2958
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