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  • Wiley (CrossRef)  (19)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde, February 1996, Vol.159(1), pp.11-21
    Description: Although per growing season nutrient uptake of adequately growing forest trees is less than the nutrient uptake of annual crop species, nutrient uptake per unit root length in trees is considerable. Because of high heterogeneity of soil conditions and root growth in forest soils, modelling of uptake processes is even more difficult for forest than for crop stands. Detailed studies show that white lips of growing tree roots have a high nutrient uptake capacity. However, most root tips are usually colonised by mycorrhizal fungi. These fungi can participate substantially in tree nutrient uptake, in particular in the utilisation of organically‐bound phosphorus and nitrogen in soils. Mycorrhizal hyphae, root tips, and older root zones can all absorb water, but their actual contribution is difficult to assess. In this review, experimental results from our laboratory and literature data are used to describe the potential activity of tree roots and mycorrhizas in nutrient and water uptake. Methodology for measurements must be developed to quantify at different forest sites the actual contribution of mycorrhizas and different root parts. Nährstoff‐ und Wasseraufnahme durch Wurzeln von Waldbäumen Der jährliche Nährstoffbedarf gut wachsender Waldbestände ist geringer als der Nährstoffbedarf von Kulturpflanzen, aber immer noch so erheblich, daß Wurzeln von Waldbäumen eine hohe Nährstoffaufnahme‐kapazität haben müssen. Die Nährstoffkonzentrationen in der Bodenlösung sind im Wald üblicherweise geringer als auf Ackerland. Vor allem sind jedoch sowohl das Nährstoffangebot als auch das Wurzelwachstum auf Waldstandorten großen räumlichen und zeitlichen Schwankungen unterworfen. Die intensive Nährstoff‐ und Wasseraufnahme durch nicht verbraunte, wachsende Wurzelspitzen von Waldbäumen ist experimentell gut untersucht. Die meisten Wurzelspitzen, insbesondere von Koniferenwurzeln, sind jedoch durch Ektomykorrhizapilze besiedelt. Anhand von eigenen Versuchsergebnissen und Literaturbeispielen wird im vorliegenden Artikel gezeigt, daß die Pilze eine große Rolle bei der Nährstoffversorgung des Baumes übernehmen können, insbesondere bei der Verwertung organischer Nährstoffquellen.
    ISSN: 0044-3263
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, September 2011, Vol.91(12), pp.2234-2240
    Description: Food allergies are increasing in the European population. At present the onset of symptoms can be avoided only by elimination of a particular fruit or vegetable from the diet. A new approach is to develop hypoallergenic food products. This study characterises the allergenic potential of tomatoes, considering cultivation conditions, developmental stages and genotypes, in order to identify hypoallergenic fruits. Patients with a history of tomato allergy were recruited for skin allergy tests. Tomatoes carrying distinct genotypes were grown under various cultivation conditions and harvested at different maturation stages. Cultivation conditions (nitrogen fertilisation, light exposure and plant nutrition) did not affect the skin reactivity in tomato‐allergic patients. However, skin reactivity was significantly lower when using green‐unripe compared with red‐ripe tomatoes and when using landrace cultivars compared with cultivars bred for use in organic horticulture. Depending on their genetic background and maturity level, some tomato cultivars elicit positive reactions in tomato‐allergic patients in the skin allergy test. This novel finding should pave the way for the development of tomatoes with reduced allergenicity to relieve sufferers of tomato allergy. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry
    Keywords: Food Allergy ; Tomato ; Cultivars ; Environmental Cultivation Conditions
    ISSN: 0022-5142
    E-ISSN: 1097-0010
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  • 3
    In: New Phytologist, May 2005, Vol.166(2), pp.601-609
    Description: •  We investigated the growth and nutrient uptake of the Lycopersicon esculentum symbiosis mycorrhiza‐defective plant mutant rmc, challenged with arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungal propagules, in the presence or absence of roots of the commercial wild‐type tomato cv. Golden Queen (GQ). •  Two plants shared the middle (combi) compartment of a horizontal three‐compartment split‐root pot with one part of their root system; the other part was grown separately in an outer (solo) pot. Combinations of rmc and GQ plants were grown together in soil that was either mycorrhiza‐free (–M) or prepared with AM fungal inoculum (+M). •  Surface colonization of rmc roots was strongly increased in the presence of (+M) GQ roots. AM fungal inoculation increased phosphorus uptake of GQ plants, but decreased growth and P uptake of rmc plants. Growth and P uptake of (+M) GQ plants were reduced when plants were grown in combination with rmc rather than another GQ plant. •  AM fungi in the (combi) compartment may have preferentially formed hyphae spreading infection rather than functioning in P uptake in (+M) GQ plants grown in combination with rmc. Surface colonization of (+M) rmc roots, in the presence of GQ roots, was probably established at the expense of carbohydrates from associated GQ plants. Possible reasons for a decreased P uptake of rmc plants in response to AM fungal inoculation are proposed.
    Keywords: Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Am ; Inoculum Potential ; Phosphorus P Deficiency ; Plant Defence Response ; Mutant ; Symbiosis‐Defective Plant Mutants ; Tomato
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, June 2010, Vol.173(3), pp.353-359
    Description: In most plant species, nutrient uptake is facilitated upon root association with symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The aim of the present experiment was to test how the form in which nitrogen (N) is supplied to the growth medium affects substrate pH, AM development, and contribution of the symbiosis to phosphorus (P) uptake from sparingly available or soluble resources. Cowpea ( L. Walp) plants inoculated or noninoculated with AM fungi ( sp.) were grown in pots with a sand substrate supplied with nutrient solution. The nutrient solution was prepared either with a high or a low concentration of soluble P, and NO‐N : NH‐N ratios of 9:1 or 5:5. The substrate supplied with low‐P nutrient solution was either or not additionally amended with ground rock phosphate. Despite a high level of root colonization, AM fungi used in the present study did not appear to increase plant availability of rock phosphate. It cannot be excluded that the ability of AM root systems to acquire P from sparingly available resources differs depending on the plant and fungal genotypes or environmental conditions. The absence from the growth substrate of P‐solubilizing microorganisms able to associate with AM mycelia might also have been a reason for this observation in our study. Increased supply of NH relative to NO improved plant P availability from rock phosphate, but also had a negative effect on the extent of AM‐fungal root colonization, irrespective of the plant P‐nutritional status. Whether increasing levels of NH can also negatively affect the functioning of the AM symbiosis in terms of plant element uptake, pathogen protection or soil‐structure stabilization deserves further investigation.
    Keywords: Arbuscular Mycorrhiza ; Nitrate‐To‐Ammonium Ratio ; Rock Phosphate ; Vigna Unguiculata
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 5
    In: New Phytologist, November 1991, Vol.119(3), pp.397-404
    Description: To study phosphorus (P) depletion and soil pH changes at the root–soil interface (rhizosphere) and at the hyphaesoil interface, mycorrhizal and non‐mycorrhizal white clover ( L.) plants were grown for 7 wk in two sterilized soils (Luvisol and Cambisol) in pots comprising five compartments: a central one for root growth, two adjacent compartments, separated from the central compartment by a nylon net of 30 μm mesh size, for growth of vesicular‐arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal [ (Nicol. & Gerd.) Gerdemann & Trappe] hyphae (hyphal compartments), and two outer compartments, separated from the hyphal compartments by a 0.45 μm membrane, which neither roots nor hyphae could penetrate (bulk soil compartments). Phosphorus was supplied as Ca(HPO) at a rate of 50 mg P kg soil in the root compartment and 150 mg P kg soil in the hyphal and bulk soil compartments. Nitrogen was supplied as (NH)SO at the rate of 300 mg N kg soil uniformly to all compartments. In both soils, shoot dry weight and P uptake were much higher in mycorrhizal plants compared with non‐mycorrhizal plants. Hyphae of VA mycorrhizal fungi contributed 70% (Cambisol) or 80% (Luvisol) to total P uptake of mycorrhizal plants. In the hyphal compartments, concentrations of both HO‐extractable soil P (Cambisol and Luvisol) and NaHCO‐extractable soil P (Luvisol) were decreased drastically. Soil P depletion profiles developed not only at the root‐soil interface (rhizosphere), but also at the hyphae‐soil interface and extended several millimetres from the hyphae surface into the soil. Likewise, the soil pH was decreased at the root‐soil interface, in the hyphal compartment and also at the hyphae‐soil interface. The results demonstrate that, similarly to roots, hyphae of VA mycorrhizal fungi have the ability to form a P depletion zone and a zone of altered pH in the adjacent soil. Thus, as well as at the root‐soil interface, soil conditions at the hyphae–soil interface may also differ considerably from conditions in the bulk soil.
    Keywords: Hyphae–Soil Interface Hyphosphere ; Phosphorus ; Soil Ph ; White Clover ; Va Mycorrhiza
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, April 2016, Vol.179(2), pp.129-135
    Description: Phosphorus is one of the major limiting factors of primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems and, thus, the P demand of plants might be among the most important drivers of soil and ecosystem development. The P cycling in forest ecosystems seems an ideal example to illustrate the concept of ecosystem nutrition. Ecosystem nutrition combines and extents the traditional concepts of nutrient cycling and ecosystem ecology. The major extension is to consider also the loading and unloading of nutrient cycles and the impact of nutrient acquiring and recycling processes on overall ecosystem properties. Ecosystem nutrition aims to integrate nutrient related aspects at different scales and in different ecosystem compartments including all processes, interactions and feedbacks associated with the nutrition of an ecosystem. We review numerous previous studies dealing with P nutrition from this ecosystem nutrition perspective. The available information contributes to the description of basic ecosystem characteristics such as emergence, hierarchy, and robustness. In result, we were able to refine Odum's hypothesis on P nutrition strategies along ecosystem succession to substrate related ecosystem nutrition and development. We hypothesize that at sites rich in mineral‐bound P, plant and microbial communities tend to introduce P from primary minerals into the biogeochemical P cycle (acquiring systems), and hence the tightness of the P cycle is of minor relevance for ecosystem functioning. In contrast, tight P recycling is a crucial emergent property of forest ecosystems established at sites poor in mineral bound P (recycling systems). We conclude that the integration of knowledge on nutrient cycling, soil science, and ecosystem ecology into holistic ecosystem nutrition will provide an entirely new view on soil–plant–microbe interactions.
    Keywords: Ecosystem Properties ; P Recycling ; P Nutrition Strategy ; Forest Nutrition ; P Acquiring
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, August 2019, Vol.182(4), pp.647-655
    Description: In terrestrial ecosystems, plants are frequently in symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) with mineral nutrients and photosynthesis carbon exchanges in between. This research sought to identify the effects of phosphorus (P) levels on the nitrogen (N) uptake extraradical mycelium (ERM) and the mycorrhizal growth response (MGR) of maize plants within the AMF symbiosis. Pots were separated into root compartments and hyphae compartments (HCs) with two layers of a 30‐μm mesh membrane and an air gap in between, where only hyphae could pass through, to avoid both N diffusion and root growth effects. Maize plants were inoculated with with different N fertilization in HCs under two different P fertilization levels. Our results indicated that a strong increase in MGR with low‐P fertilization. The same tendency was not observed with high‐P fertilization, although both had a large increase in P concentration as a potential source of growth in shoot tissue of mycorrhizal plants. Substantial effects (10.5% more N) were observed in the case of high‐P availability for the host plants from ERM fed with N, whereas under low‐P conditions ERM may prioritize P uptake rather than N uptake. The AM fungi increase the uptake of N and P, which are most limiting in the soil with fewer forces from soil resources. In addition, there was still more P accumulated than N due to the high N for ERM with high‐P supply. Low N in HCs corresponded with a lower colonization rate in roots but with high hyphae density in HCs; this result suggest that N and P availability might change the ratio of extraradical to intraradical hyphae length.
    Keywords: Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis ; Extraradical Hyphae ; Mycorrhizal Growth Response ; Mycorrhizal Hyphae ; Nitrogen Uptake ; Phosphorus Uptake
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 8
    In: Physiologia Plantarum, April 1999, Vol.105(4), pp.694-700
    Description: The contribution of hyphae of (Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerd. and Trappe (BEG 107) to the acquisition of mineral nitrogen by L. cv. Hano (wheat) was tested under conditions of low P and high N (+N−P) or low N (−N−P). Mycorrhizal colonisation increased the shoot dry weight and plant tissue concentrations of P and cations. However, N tissue concentrations of mycorrhizal plants were not increased, although nitrate reductase activities were significantly higher (in vivo activity) in +N−P mycorrhizal compared to non‐mycorrhizal roots. Severe plant N deficiency reduced the percentage root length colonised (but not the percentage viable colonisation), hyphal length, total N uptake by hyphae and dry weight of mycorrhizal plants. Although mycorrhizal colonisation did not affect the overall plant N status, hyphae transported 1% (−N−P) and 7% (+N−P) of the N‐labelled NHNO to mycorrhizal plants over 48 h. The higher rate of hyphal N uptake was apparently related to the more extensive hyphal growth at the higher level of plant N supply. However, the hyphal N supply was not sufficiently high to sustain adequate N nutrition of the plants supplied with very low amounts of N to the roots. Conversely, a sufficient N supply to the roots was important for the development of an extensive mycelium.
    ISSN: 0031-9317
    E-ISSN: 1399-3054
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, December 2007, Vol.170(6), pp.762-768
    Description: In recent years, interest has grown in cultivating species with enhanced health benefits and/or distinct flavor. Concentrations of phytochemicals determining these desired characteristics may be influenced by nitrogen forms (ammonium or nitrate) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. We examined these relations with the test plant bunching onion ( L.). Three different ammonium‐to‐nitrate (NH : NO) ratios were supplied in combination with or without inoculation with an AM fungus (). The plants were evaluated for dry weight, leaf number, and content of nutrients (N, NO, P, S), sugars (glucose, fructose, and sucrose), and organosulfur compounds (measured as pyruvic acid). The experiment was carried out under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. Plants were grown on perlite amended twice a day with nutrient solution. In nonmycorrhizal plants, the application of nutrient solution with predominant NO or NHNO as N source supported adequate growth of while predominant NH supply resulted in decreased growth and occurrence of wilting symptoms. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased dry weight and leaf number of predominantly NH‐fed or NHNO‐fed plants. While shoot P concentration increased with higher NH supply, shoot N concentration increased in predominantly NH‐fed plants only. Nitrogen form and AM colonization had little effect on shoot S or sugar concentrations. The total content in organosulfur compounds was significantly affected by both, N form and AM colonization. The optimal growth condition for a high formation of organosulfur compounds in this experiment was a nutrient solution with predominant NO supply, but when supported by AM fungi, produced similar amounts of pyruvic acid in NHNO‐fed plants.
    Keywords: Am Fungi ; Ammonium ; Nitrate ; Organosulfur Compounds ; Pyruvic Acid
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, June 1999, Vol.162(3), pp.301-307
    Description: To understand the effect of increased soil N supply on tree growth and nutrient uptake, three‐year‐old Norway spruce seedlings were grown in pots on low‐nutrient mineral forest soil supplemented with N in mineral or organic form. Outdoor shaded growth conditions were used, to test the hypothesis that shaded plants are particularly susceptible to high soil N supply. Plants were harvested eleven months after planting. Shoot growth was not affected by the N supply, but N concentrations in needles and roots were increased in plants supplied with mineral N (150 or 300 mg N [kg soil]). Root growth was drastically reduced and root/shoot ratios were decreased in plants with higher N uptake. A high supply of mineral N to soil also decreased the concentrations of other essential elements (P, K) in the needles and thus had effects on plant growth which may impair the stress resistance of trees. Organic N in the form of keratin (150 mg N [kg soil]) did not influence plant growth significantly. The adverse effects of high mineral N supply were particularly pronounced under shaded conditions in comparison to results from other experiments using higher light intensity and temperature conditions. Einfluß des Stickstoffangebots im Boden auf Wachstum und Nährstoffaufnahme von Jungfichten unter schattigen Bedingungen Die Auswirkungen eines erhöhten Stickstoffangebots auf Wachstum und Nährstoffaufnahme von dreijährigen Fichtenjungpflanzen wurden in einem Gefäßversuch unter schattigen Freilandbedingungen untersucht. Dabei wurde die Vermutung getestet, daß beschattete Fichten besonders empfindlich auf ein hohes Stickstoffangebot reagieren. Nach elf Monaten Versuchsdauer hatte die Stickstoffversorgung des Bodens keinen signifikanten Einfluß auf das Sproßwachstum. Die Stickstoffkonzentrationen in Nadeln und Wurzeln waren jedoch erhöht, wenn dem Boden mineralischer Stickstoff zugegeben worden war (150 bzw. 300 mg N [kg Boden]). Die mit mineralischem Stickstoff versorgten Pflanzen zeigten ein stark vermindertes Wurzelwachstum und ein verringertes Wurzel‐/Sproßverhältnis. In diesen Pflanzen waren auch die Nadelkonzentrationen an Phosphor und Kalium deutlich vermindert. Keratin als organische Stickstoffquelle (150 mg N [kg Boden]) hatte keinen Einfluß auf das Baumwachstum. Die negativen Effekte hoher Gehalte an mineralischem Stickstoff im Boden waren in diesem Versuch stärker ausgeprägt als in ähnlichen Versuchen unter optimalen Licht‐ und Temperaturbedingungen.
    Keywords: Ammonium ; Induced Nutrient Deficiency ; Nitrate ; Picea Abies ; Root Growth ; Shoot/Root Ratio
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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