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  • Wiley (CrossRef)  (136)
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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    In: Centaurus, February 2008, Vol.50(1‐2), pp.166-167
    ISSN: 0008-8994
    E-ISSN: 1600-0498
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  • 2
    In: Addiction, February 2017, Vol.112, pp.82-91
    Description: Byline: Frances K. Del Boca, Thomas F. Babor, Jeremy W. Bray, Jesse Hinde, Jeremy Bray, David Kaiser, Erin Mallonee Keywords: Alcohol; financing; institutions; Medicaid; policy; SBIRT Abstract Aims To examine how institutional constraints, comprising federal actions and states' substance abuse policy environments, influence states' decisions to activate Medicaid reimbursement codes for screening and brief intervention for risky substance use in the United States. Methods A discrete-time duration model was used to estimate the effect of institutional constraints on the likelihood of activating the Medicaid reimbursement codes. Primary constraints included federal Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) grant funding, substance abuse priority, economic climate, political climate and interstate diffusion. Study data came from publicly available secondary data sources. Results Federal SBIRT grant funding did not affect significantly the likelihood of activation (P = 0.628). A $1 increase in per-capita block grant funding was associated with a 10-percentage point reduction in the likelihood of activation (P = 0.003) and a $1 increase in per-capita state substance use disorder expenditures was associated with a 2-percentage point increase in the likelihood of activation (P = 0.004). States with enacted parity laws (P = 0.016) and a Democratic-controlled state government were also more likely to activate the codes. Conclusion In the United States, the determinants of state activation of Medicaid Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) reimbursement codes are complex, and include more than financial considerations. Federal block grant funding is a strong disincentive to activating the SBIRT reimbursement codes, while more direct federal SBIRT grant funding has no detectable effects.
    Keywords: Alcohol ; Financing ; Institutions ; Medicaid ; Policy ; Sbirt
    ISSN: 0965-2140
    E-ISSN: 1360-0443
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  • 3
    In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, December 2015, Vol.13611(1), pp.36-57
    Description: From the discovery of new galaxies and nearly undetectable dark energy to the quantum entanglement of particles across the universe, new findings in physics naturally elicit a sense of awe and wonder. For the founders of modern physics—from Einstein and Bohr to Heisenberg, Pauli, and Bohm—a fascination with deeper questions of meaning and ultimate reality led some of them to explore esoteric traditions and metaphysics. More recently, however, physicists have largely shunned such philosophical and spiritual associations. What can contemporary physics offer us in the quest to understand our place in the universe? Has physics in some ways become a religion unto itself that rejects the search for existential meaning? Discussion of these and related questions is presented in this paper.
    Keywords: Physics ; Metaphysics ; Dark Energy ; Matter
    ISSN: 0077-8923
    E-ISSN: 1749-6632
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  • 4
    In: Land Degradation & Development, September 2018, Vol.29(9), pp.3112-3126
    Description: Bioeconomy strategies have been adopted in many countries around the world. Their sustainable implementation requires a management of soils that maintains soil functions and avoids land degradation. Only then, ecosystem services can be maintained and resources used efficiently. We present an analytical framework for impact assessment that links policy and technology driving forces for soil management decisions to soil processes, soil functional changes, and their impacts on ecosystem services and resource use efficiency, both being targets that have been set by society and are anchored in bioeconomy policy strategies and sustainable development goals. Although the resource use efficiency concept has a long‐term tradition, most studies of agricultural management do not address the role of soils in their efficiency assessment. The concept of ecosystem services has received increasing attention over the last years; however, its link to soil functions and soil management practices is still not well established. This study is the first to conceptually link the socioeconomic processes of external drivers for soil management with the natural processes of soil functions and connect them back to impacts on the social system. Application of the framework helps strengthen the science‐policy interface and to systemically assess and compare the opportunities and threats of soil management practices from the perspective of goals set by society at different spatial and temporal scales. Insights gained in this way can be applied in stakeholder decision‐making processes and used to inform the design of governance instruments aimed at sustainable soil management within a bioeconomy.
    Keywords: Bioeconomy ; Ecosystem Services ; Impact Assessment ; Resource Use Efficiency ; Soil Management Practices ; Sustainable Development Goals
    ISSN: 1085-3278
    E-ISSN: 1099-145X
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  • 5
    In: Significance, August 2013, Vol.10(4), pp.20-25
    Description: Big business has embraced big data with enthusiasm. It is a love‐fest; it seems they were made for each other. Should statistics make it a ? No, says : that way lies perdition. Statisticians would lose their souls. Yes, says : the happy couple have much to offer statisticians – and will go horribly wrong without them. First, the warning voice … argues that business, big data and statistics should consummate their long‐overdue alliance.
    Keywords: Mathematics;
    ISSN: 1740-9705
    E-ISSN: 1740-9713
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  • 6
    In: Molecular Ecology, July 2010, Vol.19(14), pp.2845-2857
    Description: The marine midge (Chironomidae, Diptera) is characterized by a one‐dimensional distribution along the European Atlantic coast, where its lunar and circadian emergence rhythms are genetically adapted to the local tidal regimes, resulting in a series of ‘temporal races’. is restricted to rocky coasts and thus the temporal races occur in different rocky patches. We studied 10 populations of from five different regions, spanning the major rocky mainland coasts from Spain to Norway, using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP), microsatellites and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequences. Star‐like patterns of COI haplotypes within regions indicate postglacial colonization. A high degree of shared polymorphisms in AFLP markers suggests colonization from a single source, implying postglacial evolution of timing adaptations in relation to the local tidal regime. In contrast, no COI haplotypes are shared among regions. We hypothesize that different levels of differentiation of nuclear vs. mitochondrial markers in the source region were carried forward during postglacial expansion. Despite the recent origin of populations, all markers reveal distinct genetic differentiation between rocky coasts on a scale of 650–1150 km. Differentiation between rocky coasts is not correlated to timing adaptations, suggesting that geographic isolation is prevalent between rocky coasts and that this facilitated the evolution of local timing adaptations. At the same time there is little genetic differentiation within rocky coasts on a scale of 2–6 km; leaving open the possibility that within rocky coasts with large variation in tidal regimes, temporal adaptations evolved in the face of gene flow.
    Keywords: Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms ; Allochrony ; Cytochrome Oxidase ; Genetic Isolation ; Microsatellites ; Range Expansion
    ISSN: 0962-1083
    E-ISSN: 1365-294X
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  • 7
    In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, July 2000, Vol.30(7), pp.1396-1420
    Description: At the peak of a hurricane watch and warning, participants completed a questionnaire asking about their prior experience with a hurricane (property loss and distress), and their degree of preparation, perceived threat, and distress when threatened by Hurricane Emily (Study 1) or Hurricane Fran (Study 2). In Study 1, age, income, internal locus of control, perceived threat, and current distress predicted preparation. Among participants with hurricane experience, age and distress as a result of the hurricane accounted for a significant portion of preparation variance. In Study 2, age, perceived threat, and hurricane experience predicted preparation. The findings support both the conservation of resources stress model (Hobfoll, 1989) and the warning and response model (Lindell & Perry, 1992). Implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed.
    Keywords: Social Psychology -- Research ; Hurricanes -- Social Aspects ; Emergency Preparedness -- Research;
    ISSN: 0021-9029
    E-ISSN: 1559-1816
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, May 1974, Vol.63(5), pp.784-786
    Description: Investigations with ibuprofen [(±)-p-isobutylhydratropic acid], a well-tolerated, orally active, anti-inflammatory drug, were undertaken to: (a) determine the relationship among plasma drug concentrations, administered dose, and anti-inflammatory activity in developing and established polyarthritis in rats; and (b) compare the plasma drug disappearance half-lives in normal and polyarthritic rats. The results indicated that plasma drug concentrations in normal and polyarthritic rats were dose related. The logarithm of biological activity expressed as [% IPA/(100 – % IPA)], where % IPA is the mean percent inhibition of developing or established polyarthritis as measured by plasma inflammation units, was related to the logarithms of: (a) administered dose (mg kg−1), (b) plasma drug concentrations (μg ml−1) at 2hr postadministration, and (c) average plasma drug concentrations (μg ml−1) in a dosage interval at the equilibrium state. Half-lives for elimination of ibuprofen from the plasma of normal rats (after single-dose oral drug administration) and polyarthritic rats (after 29 doses) were essentially identical.
    Keywords: Ibuprofen—Plasma Levels Correlated With Biological Activity ; Biological Activity—Correlated With Ibuprofen Plasma Levels ; Anti-Inflammatory Agents—Ibuprofen Plasma Levels Correlated With Biological Activity ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0022-3549
    E-ISSN: 1520-6017
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, February 1974, Vol.63(2), pp.219-221
    Description: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and drug availability from various dosage formulations, a method for the determination of ibuprofen [(±)-2-(p-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid] in human plasma was required. A simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific procedure, based on a benzene extraction of the acidified specimen and subsequent GLC analysis of the methyl esters of the extract residue, was developed. The method is sensitive to 0.5 μg ibuprofen/ml plasma. Statistical analyses indicate an average recovery of 94.8 ±6.6% (SD), which is adequate to differentiate assay error from normal biological variation. Mass spectrometric analysis, in conjunction with GLC, confirmed the specificity of the method for intact drug. The procedure was successfully applied to drug absorption studies in humans.
    Keywords: Ibuprofen—Glc Analysis in Human Plasma ; (±)- 2-(P-Isobutylphenyl)Propionic Acid (Ibuprofen)—Glc Analysis in Human Plasma ; Glc—Analysis, Ibuprofen in Human Plasma ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0022-3549
    E-ISSN: 1520-6017
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, May 1978, Vol.67(5), pp.627-630
    Description: To evaluate drug‐protein binding, a sensitive method for the determination of ibuprofen in submilliliter amounts of serum was required. A specific and highly sensitive procedure, based on benzene extraction of the acidified specimen, TLC of the benzene extract residue, formation of the pentafluorobenzyl esters of the materials eluted from the thin‐layer chromatogram, and quantification of the pentafluorobenzyl esters by GLC, was developed. Utilizing electron‐capture detection, the method is sensitive to 0.1 μg of ibuprofen/0.1 ml of serum. Statistical analyses indicated an average recovery of 97.7% with a standard deviation of ±7.3%. Mass spectrometric analysis, in conjunction with GLC, confirmed the specificity of the method for the intact drug. The procedure was applied successfully to drug absorption and drug‐protein binding studies in humans.
    Keywords: Ibuprofen—Electron-Capture Glc Analysis in Serum, Time Course of Protein Binding in Humans ; Glc, Electron Capture—Analysis, Ibuprofen in Serum ; Protein Binding—Ibuprofen in Humans, Time Course Studied Using Electron-Capture Glc Analysis in Serum ; Anti-Inflammatory Agents—Ibuprofen, Electron-Capture Glc Analysis in Serum, Time Course of Protein Binding in Humans ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0022-3549
    E-ISSN: 1520-6017
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