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  • Wiley (CrossRef)  (33)
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  • 1
    In: Global Change Biology, April 2009, Vol.15(4), pp.781-781
    Description: To authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01893.x Byline: WERNER BORKEN (*), EGBERT MATZNER (*) Author Affiliation: (*)Department of Soil Ecology, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany Article note: Correspondence: Werner Borken, tel. +49 921 555 741, fax +49 921 555 799, e-mail: werner.borken@uni-bayreuth.de
    Keywords: Soil Ecology ; Soils;
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 2
    In: Global Change Biology, April 2009, Vol.15(4), pp.808-824
    Description: In the next decades, many soils will be subjected to increased drying/wetting cycles or modified water availability considering predicted global changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration. These changes may affect the turnover of C and N in soils, but the direction of changes is still unclear. The aim of the review is the evaluation of involved mechanisms, the intensity, duration and frequency of drying and wetting for the mineralization and fluxes of C and N in terrestrial soils. Controversial study results require a reappraisal of the present understanding that wetting of dry soils induces significant losses of soil C and N. The generally observed pulse in net C and N mineralization following wetting of dry soil (hereafter wetting pulse) is short‐lived and often exceeds the mineralization rate of a respective moist control. Accumulated microbial and plant necromass, lysis of live microbial cells, release of compatible solutes and exposure of previously protected organic matter may explain the additional mineralization during wetting of soils. Frequent drying and wetting diminishes the wetting pulse due to limitation of the accessible organic matter pool. Despite wetting pulses, cumulative C and N mineralization (defined here as total net mineralization during drying and wetting) are mostly smaller compared with soil with optimum moisture, indicating that wetting pulses cannot compensate for small mineralization rates during drought periods. Cumulative mineralization is linked to the intensity and duration of drying, the amount and distribution of precipitation, temperature, hydrophobicity and the accessible pool of organic substrates. Wetting pulses may have a significant impact on C and N mineralization or flux rates in arid and semiarid regions but have less impact in humid and subhumid regions on annual time scales. Organic matter stocks are progressively preserved with increasing duration and intensity of drought periods; however, fires enhance the risk of organic matter losses under dry conditions. Hydrophobicity of organic surfaces is an important mechanism that reduces C and N mineralization in topsoils after precipitation. Hence, mineralization in forest soils with hydrophobic organic horizons is presumably stronger limited than in grassland or farmland soils. Even in humid regions, suboptimal water potentials often restrict microbial activity in topsoils during growing seasons. Increasing summer droughts will likely reduce the mineralization and fluxes of C and N whereas increasing summer precipitation could enhance the losses of C and N from soils.
    Keywords: C Mineralization ; Drying ; Nitrate Leaching ; N Mineralization ; Precipitation ; Soil Moisture ; Soil Organic Carbon ; Soil Respiration ; Wetting
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, April 2018, Vol.181(2), pp.177-184
    Description: Drying and rewetting (D/W) of soils often resulted in the release of soluble phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), thereby changing the availability of both nutrients. Most experiments on D/W have been conducted with disturbed mineral soil samples and with rewetting of the soil samples by abrupt change in the water potential. Here, we studied the effect of D/W on the leaching of P and N from undisturbed forest floors of a European beech and a Norway spruce site under near field conditions of desiccation and rewetting. We hypothesized that even under realistic rewetting of undisturbed forest floors, the leaching of P and N is increased after D/W and that the effects are less pronounced for spruce than for beech because of the larger hydrophobicity of the spruce forest floor. Undisturbed forest floor columns were subjected to desiccation at 20°C until a matrix potential of –100 MPa (pF 6.0) was reached, while controls were kept at moist conditions. Columns were irrigated by 22 mm day from day 1–3 and by 10 mm day from day 4–14 given in automated short pulses. Leachates from the soil columns were analyzed for orthophosphate, total P, NH, NO, and total N. In the spruce forest floor the concentrations of total P in leachates and the leachate fluxes were strongly increased after D/W. The increase of solute P was less for beech than for spruce coinciding with less actual rewetting of the beech forest floor. Leaching of total N from the spruce forest floor was not affected by D/W, however, concentrations and leaching of NH increased, while leaching of NO decreased. For beech the leaching of total N and NH increased after D/W, while NO leaching decreased. The results indicate that also under realistic conditions, D/W of forest floors increases solute P and leads to changes in the ratio of NH/NO in solution, thereby altering the availability of the nutrients.
    Keywords: Beech ; Desiccation ; Leaching ; Organic Layer ; Soil Solution ; Spruce
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 4
    In: Global Change Biology, April 2009, Vol.15(4), pp.825-836
    Description: Freezing and thawing may alter element turnover and solute fluxes in soils by changing physical and biological soil properties. We simulated soil frost in replicated snow removal plots in a mountainous Norway spruce stand in the Fichtelgebirge area, Germany, and investigated N net mineralization, solute concentrations and fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and of mineral ions (NH, NO, Na, K, Ca, Mg). At the snow removal plots the minimum soil temperature was −5 °C at 5 cm depth, while the control plots were covered by snow and experienced no soil frost. The soil frost lasted for about 3 months and penetrated the soil to about 15 cm depth. In the 3 months after thawing, the N net mineralization in the forest floor and upper mineral soil was not affected by soil frost. In late summer, NO concentrations increased in forest floor percolates and soil solutions at 20 cm soil depth in the snow removal plots relative to the control. The increase lasted for about 2–4 months at a time of low seepage water fluxes. Soil frost did not affect DOC concentrations and radiocarbon signatures of DOC. No specific frost effect was observed for K, Ca and Mg in soil solutions, however, the Na concentrations in the upper mineral soil increased. In the 12 months following snowmelt, the solute fluxes of N, DOC, and mineral ions were not influenced by the previous soil frost at any depth. Our experiment did not support the hypothesis that moderate soil frost triggers solute losses of N, DOC, and mineral ions from temperate forest soils.
    Keywords: 14 C ; Dissolved Organic Carbon ; Do 14 C ; Frost ; Leaching ; N Mineralization ; Soil Solution ; Soil ; Thawing
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, October 2016, Vol.179(5), pp.670-678
    Description: Drying–rewetting cycles (D/W) occur frequently in topsoils and may mobilize phosphorus (P). We investigated the effect of repeated D/W on the release of dissolved inorganic (DIP) and organic P (DOP) from forest floors and A horizons. Samples were taken from 3 European beech sites and from 3 Norway spruce sites. Soils were desiccated up to pF 6 (–100 MPa) in three D/W cycles in the laboratory, while the controls were kept permanently at 50% water holding capacity. After each drying, P was extracted from the soils in water. D/W caused the release of DIP and DOP especially from O layers. There was no general difference in response to D/W between samples from beech and spruce. The net release of DIP after D/W was largest from the Oe horizons (average 50–60 mg P kg) for both beech and spruce forest soils. The net release of DIP from Oi layers was on average 7.8 mg P kg and from spruce Oa layers 21.1 mg P kg. In the A horizons, net DIP release was similar in beech and spruce soils with 0.4 mg P kg. The release of DOP was less than the release of DIP except for the A horizons. Repeated cycles did not increase the release of DIP and DOP. The release of DIP and DOP was positively correlated with the microbial biomass in Oe and Oa layers but not in Oi layers. Our results suggest that D/W may significantly influence the short term availability of dissolved P in both beech and spruce forest soils.
    Keywords: Drying–Rewetting ; Dissolved Inorganic Phosphorus Dip ; Dissolved Organic Phosphorus Dop ; Microbial Biomass ; Forest Soils
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, August 2014, Vol.177(4), pp.566-572
    Description: In temperate forest soils, N net mineralization has been extensively investigated during the growing season, whereas N cycling during winter was barely addressed. Here, we quantified net ammonification and nitrification during the dormant season by and laboratory incubations in soils of a temperate European beech and a Norway spruce forest. Further, we compared temperature dependency of N net mineralization in field incubations with those from laboratory incubations at controlled temperatures. From November to April, N net mineralization of the organic and upper mineral horizons amounted to 10.9 kg N (ha · 6 months) in the spruce soil and to 44.3 kg N (ha · 6 months) in the beech soil, representing 65% (beech) and 26% (spruce) of the annual above ground litterfall. N net mineralization was largest in the Oi/Oe horizon and lowest in the A and EA horizons. Net nitrification in the beech soil [1.5 kg N (ha · 6 months)] was less than in the spruce soil [5.9 kg N (ha · 6 months)]. In the range of soil temperatures observed in the field (0–8°C), the temperature dependency of N net mineralization was generally high for both soils and more pronounced in the laboratory incubations than in the incubations. We suggest that homogenization of laboratory samples increased substrate availability and, thus, enhanced the temperature response of N net mineralization. In temperate forest soils, N net mineralization during the dormant season contributes substantially to the annual N cycling, especially in deciduous sites with large amounts of litterfall immediately before the dormant season. High Q values of N net mineralization at low temperatures suggest a huge effect of future increasing winter temperature on the N cycle in temperate forests.
    Keywords: Winter ; Net Ammonification ; Net Nitrification ; Incubation ; Norway Spruce ; European Beech
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, April 2014, Vol.177(2), pp.168-177
    Description: Soil drought influences the C turnover as well as the fine‐root system of tree saplings. Particularly during the period of establishment, the susceptibility to drought stress of saplings is increased because of incompletely developed root systems and reduced access to soil water. Here, we subjected beech saplings ( L.) to different levels of drought stress. Beech saplings were planted in rhizotrons, which were installed in the soil of a Norway spruce forest before bud burst. Soil moisture was manipulated in the following year during May to September. We measured photosynthetic net CO uptake, volume production of fine roots, and rhizosphere respiration during the growing season. Biometric parameters of the fine‐root system, biomass, and nonstructural carbohydrates were analyzed upon harvest in October. Photosynthesis and rhizosphere respiration decreased with increasing drought‐stress dose (cumulated soil water potential), and cumulative rhizosphere respiration was significantly negatively correlated with drought‐stress dose. Fine‐root length and volume production were highest at moderate soil drought, but decreased at severe soil drought. The proportion of fine‐roots diameter 〈 0.2 mm and the root‐to‐shoot ratio increased whereas the live‐to‐dead ratio of fine roots decreased with increasing drought‐stress dose. We conclude that the belowground C allocation as well as the relative water‐uptake efficiency of beech saplings is increased under drought.
    Keywords: Drought Stress ; European Beech ; Fine Roots ; Rhizosphere Respiration ; Rhizotrons
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Global Change Biology, 05/2009
    ISSN: 13541013
    E-ISSN: 13652486
    Source: Wiley (via CrossRef)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, October 2008, Vol.171(5), pp.665-665
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, April 2016, Vol.179(2), pp.129-135
    Description: Phosphorus is one of the major limiting factors of primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems and, thus, the P demand of plants might be among the most important drivers of soil and ecosystem development. The P cycling in forest ecosystems seems an ideal example to illustrate the concept of ecosystem nutrition. Ecosystem nutrition combines and extents the traditional concepts of nutrient cycling and ecosystem ecology. The major extension is to consider also the loading and unloading of nutrient cycles and the impact of nutrient acquiring and recycling processes on overall ecosystem properties. Ecosystem nutrition aims to integrate nutrient related aspects at different scales and in different ecosystem compartments including all processes, interactions and feedbacks associated with the nutrition of an ecosystem. We review numerous previous studies dealing with P nutrition from this ecosystem nutrition perspective. The available information contributes to the description of basic ecosystem characteristics such as emergence, hierarchy, and robustness. In result, we were able to refine Odum's hypothesis on P nutrition strategies along ecosystem succession to substrate related ecosystem nutrition and development. We hypothesize that at sites rich in mineral‐bound P, plant and microbial communities tend to introduce P from primary minerals into the biogeochemical P cycle (acquiring systems), and hence the tightness of the P cycle is of minor relevance for ecosystem functioning. In contrast, tight P recycling is a crucial emergent property of forest ecosystems established at sites poor in mineral bound P (recycling systems). We conclude that the integration of knowledge on nutrient cycling, soil science, and ecosystem ecology into holistic ecosystem nutrition will provide an entirely new view on soil–plant–microbe interactions.
    Keywords: Ecosystem Properties ; P Recycling ; P Nutrition Strategy ; Forest Nutrition ; P Acquiring
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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