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  • 1
    In: Water Resources Research, January 2016, Vol.52(1), pp.190-205
    Description: The mathematical characterization of water vapor sorption isotherms of soils is crucial for modeling processes such as volatilization of pesticides and diffusive and convective water vapor transport. Although numerous physically based and empirical models were previously proposed to describe sorption isotherms of building materials, food, and other industrial products, knowledge about the applicability of these functions for soils is noticeably lacking. We present an evaluation of nine models for characterizing adsorption/desorption isotherms for a water activity range from 0.03 to 0.93 based on measured data of 207 soils with widely varying textures, organic carbon contents, and clay mineralogy. In addition, the potential applicability of the models for prediction of sorption isotherms from known clay content was investigated. While in general, all investigated models described measured adsorption and desorption isotherms reasonably well, distinct differences were observed between physical and empirical models and due to the different degrees of freedom of the model equations. There were also considerable differences in model performance for adsorption and desorption data. While regression analysis relating model parameters and clay content and subsequent model application for prediction of measured isotherms showed promise for the majority of investigated soils, for soils with distinct kaolinitic and smectitic clay mineralogy predicted isotherms did not closely match the measurements. Nine isotherm models for water vapor sorption in soils were evaluated Model performances differ for adsorption and desorption data Promising prediction of soil water vapor sorption isotherms from clay content
    Keywords: Hysteresis ; Adsorption ; Desorption ; Clay Content ; Gab
    ISSN: 0043-1397
    E-ISSN: 1944-7973
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Water Resources Research, 2013, Vol.49(2), pp.790-807
    Description: It is known that solute transport through soil is heterogeneous at all spatial scales. However, little data are available to allow quantification of these heterogeneities at the field scale or larger. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns of soil properties, hydrologic state variables,...
    Keywords: Other Earth And Related Environmental Sciences ; Annan Geovetenskap Och Miljövetenskap ; Soil Science ; Markvetenskap ; Environmental Sciences Related To Agriculture And Land-Use ; Miljö- Och Naturvårdsvetenskap
    ISSN: 0043-1397
    E-ISSN: 19447973
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Hydrological Processes, 15 April 2004, Vol.18(5), pp.1009-1026
    Description: The time required at a field site to obtain a few measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity () will allow for many measurements of soil air permeability (). This study investigates if measured () can be a substitute for measurement of in relation to infiltration and surface runoff modelling. Measurements of were carried out in two small agricultural catchments. A spatial correlation of the log‐transformed values existed having a range of approximately 100 m. A predictive relationship between and measured on 100‐cm soil samples in the laboratory was derived for one of the field slopes and showed good agreement with an earlier suggested predictive – relationship. measurements of and suggested that the predictive relationships also could be used at larger scale. The – relationships together with the data were applied in a distributed surface runoff (DSR) model, simulating a high‐intensity rainfall event. The DSR simulation results were highly dependent on whether the geometric average of or kriged values of was used as model input. When increasing the resolution of in the DSR model, a limit of 30–40 m was found for both field slopes. Below this limit, the simulated runoff and hydrograph peaks were independent of resolution scale. If only a few randomly chosen values of were used to represent the spatial variation within the field slope, very large deviations in repeated DSR simulation results were obtained, both with respect to peak height and hydrograph shape. In contrast, when using many predicted values based on a – relationship and measured data, the DSR model generally captured the correct hydrograph shape although simulations were sensitive to the chosen – relationship. As massive measurement efforts normally will be required to obtain a satisfactory representation of the spatial variability in , the use of to assess spatial variability in appears a promising alternative. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Air Permeability ; Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity ; Spatial Variability ; Surface Runoff ; Modelling
    ISSN: 0885-6087
    E-ISSN: 1099-1085
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, Dec, 2010, Vol.24(4), p.781(10)
    Description: To authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6712.2010.00776.x Byline: Ramune Jacobsen (1), Claus Moldrup (1), Lona Christrup (1), Per Sjogren (2), Ole Bo Hansen (3) Keywords: cancer pain management; barriers; patients Abstract: Scand J Caring Sci; 2010; 24; 781-790Psychological and behavioural predictors of pain management outcomes in patients with cancer To better understand the phenomenon of patient-related barriers to cancer pain management and address them more effectively in interventional studies, a theoretical model related to psychological aspects of pain experience and pain-related behaviours was elaborated. The aim of the study was to analyse the impact of patient-related barriers on cancer pain management outcomes following this model. Thirty-three patients responded to the Brief Pain Inventory Pain scale, the Danish Barriers Questionnaire II (DBQ-II), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS), the Danish version of Patient Perceived Involvement in Care Scale measuring the quality of patient-physician pain communication, and the Danish version of Medication Adherence Report Scale (DMARS-4). Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 16.00. The results of the multivariable linear regression analyses showed that pain intensity was explained by patients' emotional distress (symptoms of anxiety and depression) and that pain relief was explained by cognitive barriers. In conclusion, interventions in emotional distress and patients' concerns may supposedly result in better cancer pain management outcomes. Author Affiliation: (1)Section for Social Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, The Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken (2)The Multidisciplinary Pain Centre, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej, Copenhagen (3)Pain Clinic, Holbaek County Hospital, Smedelundsgade, Holbaek, Denmark Article History: Submitted 5 December 2008, Accepted 29 December 2009 Article note: Ramune Jacobsen, Section for Social Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, The Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark., E-mail: raj@farma.ku.dk
    Keywords: Depression (Mood disorder) -- Care And Treatment ; Depression (Mood disorder) -- Patient Outcomes ; Depression (Mood disorder) -- Analysis ; Physician-patient Relations -- Analysis ; Cancer Patients -- Care And Treatment ; Cancer Patients -- Patient Outcomes ; Cancer Patients -- Analysis ; Cancer Research -- Analysis ; Pain Management -- Analysis ; Cancer -- Care And Treatment ; Cancer -- Patient Outcomes ; Cancer -- Analysis ; Patient Compliance -- Analysis ; Universities And Colleges -- Analysis ; Pharmacy -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0283-9318
    E-ISSN: 14716712
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  • 5
    In: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, July 2013, Vol.60(4), pp.327-334
    Description: Phototaxis provides phytoplankton with the means to orient themselves in a light gradient. This is accomplished using an eyespot and associated organelles. For the dinoflagellate , which has been described as having one of the most elaborate eyespot complexes known, positive phototaxis has hitherto not been reported. In this study, we show that a newly isolated strain of is indeed capable of positive phototaxis with a mean vector (± 95% confidence interval) of 352°± 2.2, where 0/360° indicates the position of the light source. A study of three strains ( 1688, 1326, and 07) of showed that the eyespot in two of these strains has degenerated following decades in culture. Thus, previous studies have failed to report positive phototaxis due to loss of directionality caused by the degenerated eyespot. The results are discussed in a broader context and we conclude that studies on algal morphology and physiology may result in erroneous conclusions if based on algal cultures maintained under laboratory conditions for extended periods.
    Keywords: Protist ; Unicellular ; Algae ; Photosynthetic ; Morphology ; Light Gradient ; Photoreceptor ; Lamellar Body
    ISSN: 1066-5234
    E-ISSN: 1550-7408
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  • 6
    In: Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation, August 1999, Vol.19(3), pp.61-70
    Description: Accurate prediction of water and air Iran sport parameters in variably saturated soil is necessary for modeling of soil‐vapor extraction (SVE) at soil sites contaminated with volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). An expression for predicting saturated water permeability (k) in undisturbed soils from the soil total porosity and the field capacity soil‐water content was developed by fitting a tortuous‐tube fluid flow model to measured water permeability and gas diffusivity data. The new k expression gave accurate predictions when tested against independent k data. The k expression was implemented in the Campbell relative water permeability model to yield a predictive model for water permeability in variably saturated, undisturbed soil. The water permeability model, together with recently developed predictive equations for gas permeability and gas diffusivity, was used in a two‐dimensional numerical SVE model that also included non‐equilibrium mass transfer of VOC from a separate phase (nonaqueous phase liquid [NAPL]) to the air phase. SVE: calculations showed that gas permeability is likely the most important factor controlling VOC migration and vapor extraction efficiency. Water permeability and gas diffusivity effects became significant at water contents near and above field capacity. The NAPL‐air mass transfer coefficient also had large impacts on simulated vapor extraction efficiency. The calculations suggest that realistic SVE models need to include predictive expressions for both conveciive, diffusive. and phase‐partitioning processes in natural, undisturbed soils.
    Keywords: Environmental Sciencesair-Water Interactions ; Environmental Transport ; Volatile Matter ; Organic Compounds ; S Codes ; Soils ; Remedial Action;
    ISSN: 1069-3629
    E-ISSN: 1745-6592
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, March, 2009, Vol.23(1), p.190(19)
    Description: To authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6712.2008.00601.x Byline: Ramune Jacobsen (1), Claus Moldrup (1), Lona Christrup (1), Per Sjogren (2) Keywords: literature review; cancer pain; opioids; patients; barriers; attitudes; side effects; pain communication; adherence Abstract: The aim of this review was to systemically explore the current evidence regarding patient-related barriers to cancer pain management to find new areas that might be important for better understanding of patient barriers' phenomenon. The method used in this study was a computerised literature search, carried out in Cochrane Library, Medline (through PubMed), Web of Science and EMBASE databases for the period 1994-2005. Thirty-seven studies, dealing with cognitive, sensory and affective patient-related barriers, as well as studies, describing patients' pain communication and their adherence to analgesic regimen were included and analysed. The dominant part of articles studied cognitive patient-related barriers to cancer pain management, while affective, sensory barriers, as well as pain communication and pain medication adherence were studied in much less extend. However, the findings from different studies regarding relationships between cognitive barriers and pain intensity were not consistent. On the contrary, the quality of pain communication was consistently found to be not satisfactory in some key areas. The associations between more expressed attitudinal as well as sensory barriers and less optimal adherence were also consistent. In conclusions suggestion for the new research areas on patient-related barriers to cancer pain management are made. Firstly, further research is needed to differentiate the role of cognitive, affective and sensory factors with respect to their impact on pain relief, pain communication and medication adherence. Besides that, validated instruments to assess patients' pain communication and adherence to analgesic regimen are lacking. Author Affiliation: (1)Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Section for Social Pharmacy, The Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark (2)The Multidisciplinary Pain Centre, Danish National Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark Article History: Submitted 2 April 2007, Accepted 2 January 2008 Article note: Ramune Jacobsen, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Section for Social Pharmacy, The Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, Copenhagen, Denmark., E-mail: raj@farma.ku.dk
    Keywords: Cancer ; Cancer Research ; Cancer Pain ; Analgesics ; Patient Compliance ; Pharmacy ; Universities And Colleges ; Pain Management
    ISSN: 0283-9318
    E-ISSN: 14716712
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Pain Practice, Jan-Feb, 2009, Vol.9(1), p.1(7)
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-2500.2008.00245.x Byline: Ramune Jacobsen (,[dagger]), Claus Moldrup (*), Lona Christrup (*), Per Sjogren ([double dagger]), Ole Bo Hansen (s.) Keywords: self-reported adherence; cancer pain management; questionnaire; psychometric properties Abstract: Abstract Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the Medication Adherence Report Scale (DMARS-4) adapted to measure adherence to analgesic regimen among cancer patients. Methods: The validated English version of the Medication Adherence Report Scale was translated into Danish following the repeated back-translation procedure. Cancer patients for the study were recruited from specialized pain management facilities. Thirty-three patients responded to the DMARS-4, the Danish Barriers Questionnaire II, The Danish version of Patient Perceived Involvement in Care Scale measuring the quality of patient-physician pain communication, and the Danish Brief Pain Inventory pain severity scale. Results: A factor analysis of the DMARS-4 resulted in one factor. Mean (SD) score on the cumulative scale ranging from 4 to 20, with higher scores indicating better medication adherence, was 17.8 (0.42). The DMARS-4 scores were related to the measures of patients' concerns about pain management and patients' pain communication. The internal consistency of the DMARS-4 was 0.70. Conclusions: The DMARS-4 seems to be a valid and reliable measure of self-reported adherence to analgesic regimen in the context of cancer pain. Author Affiliation: (*)Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen; ([dagger])FKL-Research Centre for Quality in Medicine Use; ([double dagger])Rigshospitalet-The Multidisciplinary Pain Centre; (s.)Pain Clinic, Holbaek County Hospital, Denmark Article History: Submitted: July 11, 2008; Accepted: August 9, 2008 Article note: Ramune Jacobsen, MS, MPH, Section for Social Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, Copenhagen DK-2100, Denmark. E-mail: raj@farma.ku.dk.
    Keywords: Cancer Research -- Analysis ; Cancer -- Analysis ; Cancer Pain -- Analysis ; Analgesics -- Analysis ; Physician-patient Relations -- Analysis ; Patient Compliance -- Analysis ; Cancer Treatment -- Analysis ; Universities And Colleges -- Analysis ; Pain Management -- Analysis ; Cancer Patients -- Analysis
    ISSN: 1530-7085
    E-ISSN: 15332500
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