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  • 1
    In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, February 2017, Vol.21(1), pp.166-179
    Description: Urban energy metabolism includes processes for exploiting, transforming, and consuming energy, as well as processes for recycling by‐products and wastes. Embodied energy is the energy consumed during all of these activities, both directly and indirectly. Multiregional input‐output (MRIO) analysis can calculate the energy consumption embodied in flows among sectors for multiple cities or regions. Our goal was to address a problem apparent in previous research, which was insufficient attention to indirect energy flows. We combined MRIO analysis with ecological network analysis to calculate the embodied energy consumption and the energy‐related carbon footprints of five sectors in three regions that comprise the Jing‐Jin‐Ji agglomeration, using data from 2002 and 2007. Our analysis traced metabolic processes of sectors from the perspective of final consumption. Based on the embodied energy analysis, we quantified the indirect energy consumption implied in exchanges of sectors and its distribution and identified the relationships formed through the indirect consumption to analyze the roles of providers and receivers in the system. Results showed that the embodied energy consumption for the Jing‐Jin‐Ji region increased from 2002 to 2007 as a result of increased energy consumption in Tianjin and Hebei. Overall, consumption of Beijing decreased likely attributable to the fact that government policies relocated industries during this time in anticipation of the Olympic Games. The relationships among sectors changed: Beijing changed from a net exporter to an importer, whereas Hebei changed from a net importer of energy from Beijing to an exporter to Beijing, and Tianjin served as an importer in both years.
    Keywords: Beijing‐Tianjin‐Hebei ; Embodied Energy ; Industrial Ecology ; Multiregional Input‐Output ; Network Analysis ; Systems Ecology
    ISSN: 1088-1980
    E-ISSN: 1530-9290
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  • 2
    In: Earth's Future, February 2019, Vol.7(2), pp.197-209
    Description: Cities are increasingly linked to domestic and foreign markets during rapid globalization of trade. While transboundary carbon footprints of cities have been recently highlighted, we still have limited understanding of how carbon emission linkages between sectors are reshaping urban carbon footprints through time. In this study, we propose an integrated input‐output approach to trace the dynamics of various types of carbon emission linkages associated with a city. This approach quantifies full linkages in the urban carbon system from both production‐ and consumption‐based perspectives. We assess the dynamic roles that economic sectors and activities play in manipulating multiscale linkages induced by local, domestic, and international inputs. Using Beijing as a case study, we find that imports from domestic and foreign markets have an increasing impact on the city's carbon footprint with more distant linkages during the period from 1990 to 2012. The manufacturing‐related carbon emission linkages have been increasingly transferred outside the urban boundary since 2005, while the linkages from the energy sector to services sectors remain important in Beijing's local economy. Applying systems thinking to input‐output linkage analysis provides important details on when and how carbon emission linkages evolved in cities, whereby sector‐oriented and activity‐oriented carbon mitigation policies can be formulated. Cities are increasingly linked to domestic and foreign markets during rapid globalization of trade. In this study, we propose an integrated approach to answer the question: what drives the carbon emissions from urban activities? We assess the dynamic roles that economic sectors and activities play in manipulating carbon flows related to local, domestic, and international inputs. Using Beijing as a case study, we find that imports from domestic and foreign markets have an increasing impact on the city's carbon flows from 1990 to 2012. The manufacture‐related carbon emission has been increasingly transferred outside the urban boundary since 2005, and the connection of energy sector with services sectors remains important in Beijing's local economy. This study provides important details on when and how carbon emission alters in cities, whereby informed carbon mitigation policies can be formulated. New indices are proposed to quantify the dynamic carbon emission linkages for a city Manufacturing‐related carbon emission linkages have been increasingly transferred outside the city of Beijing since 2005 Carbon emission linkages from the energy sector to services sectors remain important in Beijing's local economy during urbanization
    Keywords: Carbon Emission Linkages ; Input‐Output Analysis ; Dynamic Linkage Analysis ; Urban Decarbonization
    ISSN: 2328-4277
    E-ISSN: 2328-4277
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