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  • Wiley Online Library  (23)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, June 2006, Vol.169(3), pp.462-463
    Keywords: Resin‐Film Method ; Soil Profile ; History Of Soil Science
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 2
    In: Global Change Biology, January 2018, Vol.24(1), pp.e183-e189
    Description: Current climate and land‐use changes affect regional and global cycles of silicon (Si), with yet uncertain consequences for ecosystems. The key role of Si in marine ecology by controlling algae growth is well recognized but research on terrestrial ecosystems neglected Si since not considered an essential plant nutrient. However, grasses and various other plants accumulate large amounts of Si, and recently it has been hypothesized that incorporation of Si as a structural plant component may substitute for the energetically more expensive biosynthesis of lignin. Herein, we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis. We demonstrate that in straw of rice () deriving from a large geographic gradient across South‐East Asia, the Si concentrations (ranging from 1.6% to 10.7%) are negatively related to the concentrations of carbon (31.3% to 42.5%) and lignin‐derived phenols (32 to 102 mg/g carbon). Less lignin may explain results of previous studies that Si‐rich straw decomposes faster. Hence, Si seems a significant but hardly recognized factor in organic carbon cycling through grasslands and other ecosystems dominated by Si‐accumulating plants. The key role of silicon in marine ecology by controlling algae growth is well recognized but research on terrestrial ecosystems neglected Si since not considered an essential plant nutrient. However, many plants accumulate large amounts of Si, and recently it has been hypothesized that incorporation of Si as a structural component may substitute for the energetically more expensive biosynthesis of lignin. Herein, we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis. We demonstrate that in rice straw deriving from a large geographic gradient across South‐East Asia, the Si concentrations are negatively related to the concentrations of carbon and lignin‐derived phenols. Our data offer an explanation for previous findings of faster decomposition of Si‐rich rice straw as lignin regulates plant litter decomposition rates. Hence, Si seems a significant but hardly recognized factor in carbon cycling through ecosystems dominated by grass species and/or other Si‐accumulating plants.
    Keywords: Carbon Cycle ; Lignin ; Litter Decomposition ; Rice ; Silicon ; Structural Plant Components
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 3
    In: Global Change Biology, April 2013, Vol.19(4), pp.1107-1113
    Description: More than 50% of the world's population feeds on rice. Soils used for rice production are mostly managed under submerged conditions (paddy soils). This management, which favors carbon sequestration, potentially decouples surface from subsurface carbon cycling. The objective of this study was to elucidate the long‐term rates of carbon accrual in surface and subsurface soil horizons relative to those of soils under nonpaddy management. We assessed changes in total soil organic as well as of inorganic carbon stocks along a 2000‐year chronosequence of soils under paddy and adjacent nonpaddy management in the angtze delta, hina. The initial organic carbon accumulation phase lasts much longer and is more intensive than previously assumed, e.g., by the ntergovernmental anel on limate hange (). Paddy topsoils accumulated 170–178 kg organic carbon ha a in the first 300 years; subsoils lost 29–84 kg organic carbon ha a during this period of time. Subsoil carbon losses were largest during the first 50 years after land embankment and again large beyond 700 years of cultivation, due to inorganic carbonate weathering and the lack of organic carbon replenishment. Carbon losses in subsoils may therefore offset soil carbon gains or losses in the surface soils. We strongly recommend including subsoils into global carbon accounting schemes, particularly for paddy fields.
    Keywords: Carbon Sequestration ; Inorganic Carbon ; Land Use ; Organic Carbon ; Paddy ; Rice Cultivation ; Soils ; Subsoils
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, December 2010, Vol.173(6), pp.811-821
    Description: Natural mineral dust has manifold environmental effects reaching from fertilizing aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems to affecting the earth's radiation balance and thus impacting on climate. The Sahara is considered the largest source of natural mineral dust on the globe, so much research attention has been paid to source identification, dust mobilization, transport, and effects in the sink areas. This paper gives a review of the research results concerning these topics emphasizing soil‐science‐related aspects of the last 20 y and the identification of knowledge gaps.
    Keywords: Dust Properties ; Soil Formation ; Mineralogy ; Wind Erosion ; Eolian Deposit
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, June 2007, Vol.170(3), pp.317-328
    Description: The presence of soils with andic properties on German territory has been suspected for decades and there are numerous reports of sites where they may potentially occur. Andic properties, however, are not adequately represented by the German soil‐classification system. The German taxonomic category “Lockerbraunerde” has not been revised or reconciled with international taxonomic categories since the year 1957, when it was initially proposed. With this review, we show that there are true Andosols of both the silandic (allophane‐containing) and the aluandic (Al‐Humus‐dominated) type in Germany and that their properties differ substantially from other soils which merely exhibit low bulk density. By (1) comparing soil carbon storage between some German Andosols, Chernozems, and nonandic Cambisols with particularly low bulk density and (2) elucidation of the differential pedogenetic pathways leading to Andosol formation, we further demonstrate that Andosols are important objects of study in research issues of contemporary interest. We propose that appropriate measures be taken to lay the foundations for the protection and conservation of these soils, because they are valuable as archives of natural history and provide opportunities to study unique soil processes.
    Keywords: Andosols ; Andisols ; Andic Properties ; “lockerbraunerde” ; Aluandic ; Silandic ; Carbon Storage ; Organo‐Mineral
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, December 2005, Vol.168(6), pp.741-748
    Description: Accumulation soils like those known as “Ockererde” are not yet represented in the German and in international soil‐classification systems, even though they represent important members of catenas found in humid low‐mountain areas influenced by the translocation of interpedon matter. Currently, this soil is referred to as “(Hang‐)Oxigley”, though this does not take into account its water and matter dynamics. Six representative catenas in the Black Forest (SW Germany) will be used to describe the occurrence, extent, and properties of the accumulation‐affected “Ockererde” derived from a variety of parent materials at specific altitudes. On the basis of their morphological, chemical, and physical properties as well as matter dynamics, it is possible to distinguish “Ockererde” clearly from soil units with similar characteristics (“Lockerbraunerde”, ). Finally, suggestions will be given for the classification of “Ockererde”. Akkumulationsböden wie die „Ockererde”︁ – nicht berücksichtigte Bodentypen innerhalb der Bodensystematik Durch allochthone Akkumulation geprägte Böden sind bislang ebenso wie in der internationalen auch in der deutschen Bodensystematik nicht enthalten. Am Beispiel der so genannten „Ockererde”︁ wird gezeigt, dass Akkumulationsböden wichtige Glieder der durch Stoffverlagerung gekennzeichneten Bodengesellschaften kühl‐humider Mittelgebirgslagen darstellen. Momentan wird die „Ockererde”︁ in der deutschen Bodensystematik als „(Hang‐)Oxigley”︁ angesprochen, was jedoch weder der bodenspezifischen Wasser‐ noch der Stoffdynamik gerecht wird. Anhand von sechs typischen Catenen (Buntsandstein, Gneiss, Granit) aus dem Schwarzwald (900 bis 2000 mm Jahresniederschlag), die die „Ockererde”︁ einschließen, wird deren Verbreitung, Merkmalscharakteristik und Stoffdynamik beschrieben. Auf Grundlage dessen wird eine klare Abgrenzung der „Ockererde”︁ zu Bodeneinheiten mit ähnlichen Eigenschaften (Lockerbraunerde, andische Braunerden, (Hang‐)Oxigley) vorgenommen und ein Vorschlag zur Bezeichnung und Einordnung innerhalb der Deutschen Bodenklassifikation unterbreitet.
    Keywords: Soil Classification ; Element Translocation ; Catena ; Redox Regime
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 7
    Language: German
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, February 2004, Vol.167(1), pp.60-65
    Description: Eine der zentralen Informationen für die Bodenklassifikation ist die Farbe. Bei Profilaufnahmen wird sie entweder verbal oder durch den Munsell‐Code beschrieben. Während der Name schnell und ohne Hilfsmittel zu bestimmen ist, hat der Munsell‐Code den Vorteil, dass er auf einem standardisierten Farbraum basiert und deshalb numerische Vergleiche zwischen einzelnen Farben gezogen werden können. Da in vielen bodenkundlichen Datensätzen nur der Farbname angegeben ist, ist die rechnergestützte Auswertung dieser Information oft nicht möglich. Um dieses Problem zu umgehen, wurde ein System entwickelt, mit dem zu jedem bodenkundlichen Farbnamen der mittlere Munsell‐Code bestimmt werden kann. Es ist in der plattformübergreifenden Programmiersprache Tcl/Tk als freie Software programmiert. Allocation of the Munsell code to a color name according to pedological criteria Soil color is one of the central information for soil classification. Normally, it is described by name or by Munsell code. The Munsell code is based on a standardized color space, and therefore it is possible to compare colors numerically. The advantage of the verbal description is the very fast determination without any aids. As many soil science records contain only the name, the computationally interpretation is often impossible. In order to solve this problem, a system was developed that determines the central Munsell code to every color name considering soil science criteria. It is programmed with the platform‐independent language Tcl/Tk as free software.
    Keywords: Soil Color ; Color Name ; Munsell Code ; Software
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, August 2004, Vol.167(4), pp.439-448
    Description: In Saxony‐Anhalt, Germany, an area of about 6000 ha is covered by lignite‐ash‐derived substrates. In some cases, pollutants like heavy metals or toxic organic compounds had been disposed of together with the lignite ashes. For this reason, we assessed factors influencing the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of lignite‐ash substrates exposed to natural weathering. We chose four research sites reflecting the different methods of disposal: two dumped landfills and two lagooned ashes of different ages. After determining the CEC at pH 8.1 (CEC), we evaluated the influence of the content of silt and clay and the content of total organic C. As lignite‐ash‐derived substrates are rich in oxalate‐extractable Si, Al, and Fe, we performed an oxalate extraction and determined afterwards the CEC to assess the contribution of oxalate‐soluble compounds to the CEC. Moreover, we determined the variable charge of selected samples at pH values ranging from 4 to 7. The lignite‐ash‐derived soils had a high CEC with means ranging from 25.1 cmol kg to 88.8 cmol kg. The influence of the parent material was more important than the degree of weathering. The content of total organic C consisting of pedogenic organic matter and coked lignite particles together with the content of silt and clay played a statistically significant role in determining the CEC. Another property that influenced the amount of CEC in medium textured lignite ashes was the content of oxalate‐soluble silica and aluminum. After oxalate extraction, they lost about 30% of their CEC due to the dissolution of oxalate‐soluble compounds. In coarse textured lignite ashes, oxalate extraction led to higher amounts of CEC, probably due to an increase of surface area resulting either from the disintegration of particles or from etching caused by insufficient dissolution of magnetite and maghemite. Moreover, lignite‐ash‐derived substrates exhibit a high amount of pH‐dependent charge. The CEC decreased by 40% in a topsoil sample and by 51% in a subsoil sample as the pH declined from 7 to 4. Austauscheigenschaften von Böden aus Braunkohlenaschen In Sachsen‐Anhalt bedecken Substrate aus Braunkohlenaschen ca. 6000 ha der Landesfläche. Dabei wurden in einigen Fällen toxische Substanzen wie z. B. Schwermetalle oder organische Schadstoffe zusammen mit den Braunkohlenaschen ausgebracht. Da die Beweglichkeit von Schadstoffen u. a. von der Kationenaustauschbarkeit abhängt, wurden Untersuchungen an verwitterten Braunkohlenaschen durchgeführt, um Erkenntnisse über deren Austauscheigenschaften zu erhalten. Es wurden vier Flächen ausgewählt, welche die unterschiedlichen Verfahren zur Ablagerung der Aschen wiedergeben: zwei Kippdeponien und zwei Spüldeponien unterschiedlichen Alters. An Proben aus diesen Flächen bestimmten wir die potenzielle Kationenaustauschkapazität (KAK, gemessen bei pH 8.1) und überprüften den Zusammenhang von C und dem Gehalt an Schluff und Ton mit der KAK. Da Braunkohlenaschesubstrate große Mengen an oxalatlöslichem Si, Fe und Al enthalten, quantifizierten wir den Einfluss dieser Verbindungen auf die KAK durch eine Oxalat‐Extraktion mit anschließender Bestimmung der KAK an ausgewählten Proben. Darüber hinaus wurde die variable Ladung ausgewählter Proben bei pH‐Werten von 4 bis 7 bestimmt. Die Böden aus Braunkohlenaschen wiesen eine hohe KAK auf, deren Mittelwerte zwischen 25.1 cmol kg und 88.8 cmol kg lagen. Dabei konnte ein Einfluss des Ausgangsmaterials – nicht aber des Alters – auf die KAK festgestellt werden. Sowohl der Gehalt an C, bestehend aus pedogener organischer Substanz und verkokten Braunkohlenpartikeln, als auch die Menge an Schluff und Ton übten einen statistisch nachweisbaren Einfluss auf die KAK aus. Dabei war der durch C und die Menge an Schluff und Ton erklärbare Anteil der KAK bei den Kippdeponien höher als bei den Spüldeponien. Die Gegenwart oxalatlöslicher Bestandteile hatte große Auswirkungen auf die Höhe der KAK in der verspülten Asche mit mittlerer Textur. Nach einer Oxalat‐Extraktion verringerte sich die KAK um ca. 30 %. Dagegen stieg die KAK in Braunkohlenaschen mit hohen Anteilen an Sandfraktionen an, was wahrscheinlich durch eine Vergrößerung der reaktiven Oberfläche bedingt ist. Dies ist entweder durch den Zerfall einzelner großer Partikel in mehrere kleine oder durch eine unvollständige Lösung des in den Aschen vorkommenden Magnetits und Maghemits erklärbar. Die von uns untersuchten Braunkohlenaschen wiesen außerdem eine hohe variable Ladung auf. In einer Oberboden‐ und einer Unterbodenprobe war ein Rückgang der pH‐Werte von 7 auf 4 mit einem 51 %‐ bzw. 40 %igen Rückgang der KAK verbunden.
    Keywords: Lignite Ash ; Anthropic Soils ; Cation Exchange Capacity ; Oxalate Extractable Compounds ; Total Organic Carbon ; Variable Charge
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, August 2002, Vol.165(4), pp.530-536
    Description: Weathering and initial soil formation was investigated on 5 sites of lignite ash disposal differing in age (5 to 30 years) and methods of disposal (landfills and sluicing to settling ponds). Soils developed on lignite ash derived substrates were characterized by low bulk densities ( 100) in subsoils. Initiale Bodenbildung in Braunkohlenaschedeponien und Spülteichen in Sachsen‐Anhalt Für die vorliegende Untersuchung wurden 5 Flächen ausgewählt, die aus Braunkohlenaschesubstraten unterschiedlichen Alters (5—30 Jahre) und unterschiedlicher Deponierungsart (Verkippung und Verspülung) bestehen. Anhand dieser Beispiele werden die durch Verwitterung induzierten Veränderungen der Aschen beschrieben. Die Böden auf den Untersuchungsflächen haben folgende Eigenschaften: sehr niedrige Lagerungsdichten ( 100 dominiert.
    Keywords: Lignite Ash ; Anthropic Soils ; Weathering ; Oxalate Extractable Compounds
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, December 2003, Vol.166(6), pp.737-741
    Description: The dependency of the retention of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on mineral phase properties in soils remains uncertain especially at neutral pH. To specifically elucidate the role of mineral surfaces and pedogenic oxides for DOC retention at pH 7, we sorbed DOC to bulk soil (illitic surface soils of a toposequence) and corresponding clay fraction (〈 2 μm) samples after the removal of organic matter and after removal of organic matter and pedogenic oxides. The DOC retention was related to the content of dithionite‐extractable iron, specific surface area (SSA, BET‐N method) and cation exchange capacity (pH 7). The reversibility of DOC sorption was determined by a desorption experiment. All samples sorbed 20–40 % of the DOC added. The DOC sorption of the clay fractions explained the total sorption of the bulk soils. None of the mineral phase properties investigated was able to solely explain the DOC retention. A sorption of 9 to 24 μg DOC m indicated that DOC interacted only with a fraction of the mineral surface, since loadings above 500 μg m would be expected for a carbon monolayer. Under the experimental conditions used, the surface of the silicate clay minerals seemed to be more important for the DOC sorption than the surface of the iron oxides. The desorption experiment removed 11 to 31 % of the DOC sorbed. Most of the DOC was strongly sorbed. Retention gelöster organischer Substanz durch illitische Böden und Tonfraktionen: Einfluss der Mineralphase Der Zusammenhang zwischen der Retention von gelöstem organischen Kohlenstoff (DOC) in Böden und den Eigenschaften der Mineralphase bedarf weitergehender Aufklärung v.a. bei neutralen pH‐Werten. Wir haben DOC an Gesamtböden (illitische Oberböden einer Toposequence) und dazugehörige Tonfraktionen (〈 2 μm) nach der Entfernung organischer Substanz und nach der Entfernung organischer Substanz und pedogenen Oxiden sorbiert, um besonders die Rolle der mineralischen Oberfläche und der pedogenen Oxide für die DOC‐Retention bei pH 7 hervorzuheben. Die Beziehungen zwischen DOC‐Retention und Gehalt an Dithionit‐extrahierbarem Eisen, spezifischer Oberfläche (SSA, BET‐N‐Methode) und Kationenaustauschkapazität (pH 7) wurden untersucht. Alle Proben sorbierten 20–40 % der zugegebenen DOC‐Menge. Die DOC‐Sorption der Tonfraktionen erklärte die Sorption der Gesamtböden. Keine der untersuchten Eigenschaften der Mineralphase konnte die Menge an sorbiertem DOC vollständig erklären. Es wurden 9 bis 24 μg DOC m sorbiert. Dies lässt die Vermutung zu, dass DOC nur mit einem Teil der Mineraloberfläche interagierte, da bei einer vollständigen Kohlenstoffbelegung der Oberfläche über 500 μg m zu erwarten w�ren. Die Oberfläche der silikatischen Tonminerale schien für die DOC‐Retention unter den gegebenen experimentellen Bedingungen wichtiger zu sein als die Oberfläche der Eisenoxide. Das Desorptionsexperiment entfernte 11 bis 31 % der sorbierten DOC‐Menge, der überwiegende Anteil des DOCs war somit fest gebunden.
    Keywords: Carbon Storage ; Dissolved Organic Matter ; Sorption ; Specific Surface Area ; Cation Exchange Capacity ; Pedogenic Oxide
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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