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  • Wiley Online Library  (35)
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  • 1
    In: Oikos, October 2014, Vol.123(10), pp.1224-1233
    Description: Soil systems maintain important ecosystem processes crucial for plant life and food production. Especially agricultural systems are strongly affected by climate change due to low vegetation cover associated with high temperatures and drought. Nevertheless, the response of soil systems to climate change is little explored. We used microcosms with a simplified soil community to address effects of climate change using independent temperature and dryness gradients and addressed their effects on top–down control and litter decomposition. The community consisted of maize litter as a basal resource, fungi, springtails and as top predators mites and centipedes. As the body‐size structure is of high importance for communities, we included differently‐sized springtails and predator species. After seven weeks, the experiment was terminated, and the impact of climate change on direct feeding interactions and indirect effects across trophic levels was analysed. With increasing temperature and dryness, consumption rates increased, thereby amplifying the negative influence of consumer populations on their resources. Hence, these climate‐change variables increased the top–down control of 1) predators (mainly mites) on springtails and 2) fungi on litter decomposition. In addition, we found that the climate‐change variables strengthened trophic cascades from predators on fungi whose density was thus increasingly decoupled from top–down control by their springtail consumers. Their increased decomposition rates are of high importance for carbon cycling and may result in accelerated nutrient turnover. In conclusion, our results suggest that climate change may strongly influence the structure and functioning of soil systems by strengthening consumption rates and trophic cascades, which will have far reaching consequences for the nutrient turnover and productivity of agricultural ecosystems.
    Keywords: Climate Change – Environmental Aspects ; Droughts – Environmental Aspects ; Agricultural Ecology – Environmental Aspects ; Ecosystems – Environmental Aspects;
    ISSN: 0030-1299
    E-ISSN: 1600-0706
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  • 2
    In: Oikos, December 2017, Vol.126(12), pp.1717-1725
    Description: With the world continuously warming, a mechanistic understanding of how temperature affects interaction strengths, which are fundamental to food‐web stability, is needed. As interaction strengths are determined by the flows of energy from resources to consumers, we investigated effects of temperature on animal energetics. We used newly compiled datasets on respiration rates and assimilation efficiencies to assess how temperature affects the energy use (respiration rates) and the efficiency of energy gain (assimilation efficiency) for different consumer types. Furthermore, we incorporated our findings in a simulation of temperature effects on maintenance feeding rates (i.e. energy consumption necessary to sustain life). Our analysis revealed a generally positive temperature dependence of assimilation efficiencies across consumer types thus implying a net energy gain with warming. The temperature scaling of respiration rates did not differ between consumer types. Based on these parameters we calculated maintenance feeding rates and compared them to empirically measured (realized) feeding rates. This comparison revealed that detritivores and herbivores have the potential to increase their biomasses under warming as their maintenance feeding rates increase less strongly than their realized feeding rates. For carnivores, however, we found a stronger increase of their maintenance feeding rates compared to their realized feeding rates, which should lead to decreased population sizes under warming. Overall, our results increase the understanding of climate change effects on ecosystems as they suggest profound energetic consequences for natural communities.
    Keywords: Energy Consumption – Analysis ; Climate Change – Analysis;
    ISSN: 0030-1299
    E-ISSN: 1600-0706
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Animal Ecology, May 2012, Vol.81(3), pp.516-523
    Description:  Model analyses show that the stability of population dynamics and food web persistence increase with the strength of interference competition. Despite this critical importance for community stability, little is known about how external factors such as the environmental temperature affect intraspecific interference competition.  We aimed to fill this void by studying the functional responses of two ground beetle species of different body size, and . These functional response experiments were replicated across four predator densities and two temperatures to address the impact of temperature on intraspecific interference competition.  We generally expected that warming should increase the speed of movement, encounter rates and in consequence interference among predator individuals. In our experiment, this expectation was supported by the results obtained for the larger predator, , whereas the opposite pattern characterized the interference behaviour of the smaller predator  These results suggest potentially nontrivial implications for the effects of environmental temperature on intraspecific interference competition, for which we propose an explanation based on the different sensitivity to warming of metabolic rates of both species. As expected, increasing temperature led to stronger interference competition of the larger species, , which exhibited a weaker increase in metabolic rate with increasing temperature. The stronger increase in the metabolic rate of the smaller predator, , had to be compensated by increasing searching activity for prey, which did not leave time for increasing interference.  Together, these results suggest that any generalization how interference competition responds to warming should also take the species’ metabolic response to temperature increases into account.
    Keywords: Food Webs ; Functional Responses ; Global Warming ; Interaction Strength ; Metabolic Rates
    ISSN: 0021-8790
    E-ISSN: 1365-2656
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  • 4
    In: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, December 2016, Vol.178(4), pp.828-833
    Description: Phylogenetic positioning within Eutardigrada is based mainly on claw and buccopharyngeal morphology. In tardigrades that lack claws, i.e. representatives of the genus , buccopharyngeal structures are the only morphological characters used for systematic classification. Investigating the feeding apparatus of Dastych, [Dastych H, 1983] with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy () techniques, the present study added morphological affirmation to the recently published molecular classification of as a representative of Isohypsibiidae. The present study aimed to disentangle which of the Isohypsibiidae genera is most closely related to. From a morphological point of view and with the images presently available, appears closest to and . The present study once more revealed the need for investigations that combine molecular and detailed morphological data to finally disentangle the phylogeny of Isohypsibiidae.
    Keywords: Buccopharyngeal ; Isohypsibius Dastychi ; Phylogeny Isohypsibiidae
    ISSN: 0024-4082
    E-ISSN: 1096-3642
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  • 5
    In: Child Development, May 2002, Vol.73(3), pp.752-767
    Description: This study tested the theory that advances on theory‐of‐mind tasks and on executive function tasks show a strong correlation because the typically used theory‐of‐mind tasks pose the same executive demands. In Experiment 1 with fifty‐six 3‐ to 6‐year‐old children, performance on the dimensional change card‐sorting task as an executive function task was correlated with performance on the usual false‐belief prediction task, = .65, and the false‐belief explanation task, = .65, as measures of theory‐of‐mind development. Because the explanation version of the false‐belief test is supposed to be free of the alleged executive demands inherent in the prediction version, the equally strong correlation with the executive function task suggests that this correlation cannot be due to common executive demands. In Experiment 2, the basic finding of Experiment 1 was replicated on another sample of 73 children, ages 3 to 5.5 years. The need for new theories to explain the developmental link between theory of mind and executive function development is discussed, and some existing candidates are evaluated.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Social Welfare & Social Work ; Sociology & Social History ; Psychology;
    ISSN: 0009-3920
    E-ISSN: 1467-8624
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  • 6
    Language: German
    In: Biologie in unserer Zeit, December 2015, Vol.45(6), pp.388-395
    Description: Der Boden ist einer der individuen‐ und artenreichsten Lebensräume der Erde und Ort vielfältiger ökosystemarer Dienstleistungen. Aktuelle Forschungsprojekte zur Entstehung und Entwicklung von Bodentiergemeinschaften, zu den vielfältigen Wechselwirkungen innerhalb des Bodennahrungsnetzes und zur Verbreitung von Bodentieren geben unter anderem Einblick in die ökologischen Ansprüche und Anpassungsfähigkeit der Welt unter unseren Füßen und tragen so dazu bei, eine nachhaltige Nutzung der Ökoressource Boden zu gewährleisten. Soil – an underestimated biotope The soil is a biotope with high species abundances and richness. It is, furthermore, a location where important ecosystem services are realized. Recent research projects on the origin and development of soil animal communities, on the heterogeneous interactions within the soil nutrient net and the distribution of soil animals show the different ecological traits and adaptabilities of the world beneath our feet. So research contributes to maintain the eco‐resource of soil and its sustainable use. Die Generalversammlung der Vereinten Nationen hat das Jahr 2015 zum Internationalen Jahr des Bodens erklärt. Damit soll die Bedeutung der Böden für Ernährungssicherung und Produktion nachwachsender Rohstoffe, aber auch als Kohlenstoffspeicher und Ort ökosystemarer Dienstleistungen verdeutlicht werden. Was wir über Beziehungen im Boden wissen, welche Organismen beteiligt sind und wie sich Eingriffe des Menschen auswirken, stellt dieser Beitrag an ausgewählten Beispielen vor.
    Keywords: Bodenbiozönose ; Bodennahrungsnetz ; Bodenökologie ; Bodenschutz ; Jahr Des Bodens ; Edaphobase
    ISSN: 0045-205X
    E-ISSN: 1521-415X
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  • 7
    In: Clinical Endocrinology, January 2014, Vol.80(1), pp.65-72
    Description: Byline: Mireille N. M. Poppel, Willibald Zeck, Daniela Ulrich, Eva-Christina Schest, Birgit Hirschmugl, Uwe Lang, Christian Wadsack, Gernot Desoye Summary Objective Chemerin is a novel adipokine implicated in inflammation and obesity. We hypothesized that foetal chemerin would be elevated in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and correlate with foetal and maternal adiposity. Design Observational, longitudinal study. Subjects and measurements Foetal chemerin was measured separately in arterial and venous cord blood of 30 infants born to mothers with (n = 15) and without GDM (n = 15), in their mothers in early third trimester and at delivery and in amniotic fluid (week 32) of women with GDM. Expression of chemerin and its receptor in human foetal tissues commercially available and in placental cells was measured by quantitative PCR. Associations between foetal and maternal anthropometric and metabolic variables were assessed in multivariate regression models. Results In GDM, foetal arterial but not venous cord blood chemerin levels were elevated by about 60% (P 0ae05). Venous cord blood chemerin was higher in infants of obese women (P 0ae01). In multivariate analyses, neither amniotic fluid nor cord blood chemerin levels correlated with birth weight or ponderal index. Both arterial and venous chemerin levels were related to maternal chemerin at birth, and arterial chemerin was associated with GDM status in addition. Maternal levels were unaltered in GDM, but higher in maternal obesity. Foetal liver produces fourfold more chemerin mRNA than other foetal tissues, whereas its receptor prevails in spleen. Conclusions Based on multivariate analyses, foetal growth appears unrelated to foetal chemerin. Maternal obesity and GDM have differential effects on foetal chemerin levels. Site of major production (liver) and action (spleen) differ in human foetal tissues. Article Note: Equal contribution of both authors.
    Keywords: Obesity -- Analysis ; Gestational Diabetes -- Analysis ; Rna -- Analysis;
    ISSN: 0300-0664
    E-ISSN: 1365-2265
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  • 8
    In: Gender & History, July 2019, Vol.31(2), pp.284-303
    Description: Violence is widely perceived as a gendered concept. There is a long history of seeing men as the aggressive and violent sex, and women as nurturing mother figures (and victims of male aggression). From Simone de Beauvoir onwards, feminist, and more recently queer, scholars have invested considerable...
    Keywords: Germany ; Victims ; Violence ; Feminism ; Women ; Gender ; Sex Roles ; Sex Roles ; Mothers ; Feminism ; Violence ; Gender;
    ISSN: 0953-5233
    E-ISSN: 1468-0424
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  • 9
    In: JDDG: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, February 2006, Vol.4(2), pp.124-130
    Description: Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma of the face and head and achieves cure rates of 92‐96 %. Different fractionation concepts of radiotherapy have been described.This study investigates the efficacy, as well as acute and chronic toxicity, of a slightly hypofractionated radiotherapy schedule. 85 patients with 104 tumors underwent radiotherapy for basal cell carcinoma of the face and head. The radiotherapy schedule was 5×3 Gray/week up to a total dose of 57 Gray in 95 % of patients. Acute and late radiotherapy toxicity and cosmetic outcome were evaluated in long‐term follow‐up. No recurrence was observed. In 87 % of tumors, only low acute toxicity occurred at the end of radiotherapy. Late toxicity, if observed, was low in most patients. “Excellent” or “good” cosmesis was achieved in 94 % of tumors at last follow‐up. Our radiotherapy schedule achieves a very high local control rate and very good cosmetic and functional results.This fractionation can be recommended as a standardized radiotherapy treatment for basal cell carcinoma of the face and head. Die Radiotherapie spielt eine wichtige Rolle in der Behandlung des Basalzellkarzinoms des Gesichts‐/Kopfbereichs und erreicht Heilungsraten von 92‐96 %. Verschiedene Radiotherapie‐Fraktionierungsschemata sind beschrieben worden. Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht die Wirksamkeit und (akute und chronische) Nebenwirkungen eines moderat hypofraktionierten Bestrahlungsschemas. 85 Patienten mit 104 Tumoren erhielten eine Radiotherapie bei einem Basalzellkarzinom des Gesichts‐/Kopfbereiches. In 95 % aller Patienten erfolgte eine Fraktionierung von 5x3 Gray/Woche bis zu einer Gesamtdosis von 57 Gray. Untersucht wurden akute und späte Radiotherapie‐Nebenwirkungen sowie das kosmetische Ergebnis. Es wurde kein Lokalrezidiv beobachtet. In 87 % aller Tumoren fanden sich zum Bestrahlungsende nur geringgradige akute Nebenwirkungen. Spätnebenwirkungen waren bei den meisten Patienten ebenfalls geringgradig ausgeprägt. In 94 % aller Tumoren konnte ein “exzellentes” oder “gutes” kosmetisches Ergebnis erreicht werden. Das verwendete Bestrahlungsschema erzielt eine sehr hohe lokale Kontrollrate und (“sehr”) “gute” kosmetische (und funktionelle) Ergebnisse. Die verwendete Fraktionierung kann insgesamt als standardisierte Behandlung für ein Basalzellkarzinom des Gesichts‐/Kopfbereiches empfohlen werden.
    Keywords: Basal Cell Carcinoma ; Radiotherapy ; Radiotherapy Dose Fractionation ; Treatment Outcome ; Basalzellkarzinom ; Radiotherapie ; Radiotherapie‐Fraktionierung ; Behandlungsergebnisse
    ISSN: 1610-0379
    E-ISSN: 1610-0387
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  • 10
    In: JDDG: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, February 2006, Vol.4(2), pp.no-no
    Description: Die Radiotherapie spielt eine wichtige Rolle in der Behandlung des Basalzellkarzinoms des Gesichts‐/Kopfbereichs und erreicht Heilungsraten von 92‐96 %. Verschiedene Radiotherapie‐Fraktionierungsschemata sind beschrieben worden. Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht die Wirksamkeit und (akute und chronische) Nebenwirkungen eines moderat hypofraktionierten Bestrahlungsschemas. 85 Patienten mit 104 Tumoren erhielten eine Radiotherapie bei einem Basalzellkarzinom des Gesichts‐/Kopfbereiches. In 95 % aller Patienten erfolgte eine Fraktionierung von 5x3 Gray/Woche bis zu einer Gesamtdosis von 57 Gray. Untersucht wurden akute und späte Radiotherapie‐Nebenwirkungen sowie das kosmetische Ergebnis. Es wurde kein Lokalrezidiv beobachtet. In 87 % aller Tumoren fanden sich zum Bestrahlungsende nur geringgradige akute Nebenwirkungen. Spätnebenwirkungen waren bei den meisten Patienten ebenfalls geringgradig ausgeprägt. In 94 % aller Tumoren konnte ein “exzellentes” oder “gutes” kosmetisches Ergebnis erreicht werden. Das verwendete Bestrahlungsschema erzielt eine sehr hohe lokale Kontrollrate und (“sehr”) “gute” kosmetische (und funktionelle) Ergebnisse. Die verwendete Fraktionierung kann insgesamt als standardisierte Behandlung für ein Basalzellkarzinom des Gesichts‐/Kopfbereiches empfohlen werden.
    Keywords: Basalzellkarzinom ; Radiotherapie ; Radiotherapie‐Fraktionierung ; Behandlungsergebnisse
    ISSN: 1610-0379
    E-ISSN: 1610-0387
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