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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • Wiley Online Library  (18)
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  • 1
    In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water, November 2017, Vol.4(6), pp.n/a-n/a
    Description: We review the state‐of‐the‐art of cross‐disciplinary knowledge on phosphorus (P) cycling in temperate forest ecosystems, focused at studies from hydrology, biology, biogeochemistry, soil‐, and geosciences. Changes in soil P stocks during long‐term ecosystem development are addressed briefly; the general ranges of specific P pools and P fluxes within the ecosystem and the presumed underlying processes are covered more in depth. Wherever possible, we differentiate between coniferous and deciduous forests. As the most important P pools, mineral soil, forest floor, vegetation, and microbial biomass are described in terms of pool size, molecular composition, and turnover. Litterfall, soil water seepage, atmospheric deposition, and biotic uptake as the most studied P fluxes in the forest ecosystem are discussed in detail, spotlighting biogeochemical processes relevant for mobilization and retention of P in the rooting zone. Through a meta‐analysis of available literature, we build a dataset that allows the quantification of major P‐cycle components in temperate forests in terms of range and distribution, highlighting similarities and differences between coniferous and deciduous forests. The two forest types are notably distinct in their distribution of P within compartments of the plant biomass and forest floor. The possibility to construct closed local P balances is often hindered by missing information on fluxes of dissolved and particulate P across the ecosystem boundary, be it in the atmosphere, soil, or on the surface. These fluxes are irregular in space and time and feature large overall mass fluxes but comparatively small P fluxes, making the latter one difficult to quantify. 2017, 4:e1243. doi: 10.1002/wat2.1243 This article is categorized under: A schematic respresentation of the Phosphorus cycle in temperate forests. Pools and fluxes are scaled to their average size. See the full paper for more detailed information and data sources.
    Keywords: Phosphorus Cycle ; Phosphorus ; Phosphorus Cycle ; Compartments ; Phosphorus ; Uptake ; Biogeochemistry ; Biomass ; Plant Biomass ; Environmental Changes ; Soil Water ; Pools ; Soil Water ; Distribution ; Composition ; Forests ; Phosphorus Cycle ; Biogeochemistry ; Biogeochemistry ; Biomass ; Biology ; Phosphorus ; Forests ; Microorganisms ; Ecosystems ; Moisture Content ; Forest Floor ; Forest Ecosystems ; Forests ; Stocks ; Hydrology ; Forests ; Rooting ; Pools ; Seepage ; Components ; Hydrology ; Deciduous Forests ; Forest Floor ; Fluxes ; Atmospheric Pollutant Deposition ; Soils ; Hydrology ; Seepage ; Biomass ; Hydrology ; Forest Biomass;
    ISSN: 2049-1948
    E-ISSN: 2049-1948
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, April 2017, Vol.180(2), pp.220-230
    Description: Standard procedures to assess P availability in soils are based on batch experiments with various extractants. However, in most soils P nutrition is less limited by bulk stocks but by strong adsorption and transport limitation. The basic principle of root‐phosphate uptake is to strip phosphate locally from the solid phase by forming a radial depletion zone in the soil solution, optionally enhanced by release of mobilizing substances. Microdialysis (MD), a well‐established method in pharmacokinetics, is capable to mimic important characteristics of P root uptake. The sampling is by diffusional exchange through a semipermeable membrane covering the probes with their sub‐mm tubular structure. Additionally, the direct environment of the probe can be chemically modified by adding, ., carboxylates to the perfusate. This study is the first approach to test the applicability of MD in assessing plant available phosphate in soils and to develop a framework for its appropriate use.We used MD in stirred solutions to quantify the effect of pumping rate, concomitant ions, and pH value on phosphate recovery. Furthermore, we measured phosphate yield of top‐soil material from a beech forest, a non‐fertilized grassland, and from a fertilized corn field. Three perfusates have been used based on a 1 mM KNO solution: pure (1), with 0.1 mM citric acid (2), and with 1 mM citric acid (3). Additionally, a radial diffusion model has been parametrized for the stirred solutions and the beech forest soil.Results from the tests in stirred solutions were in good agreement with reported observations obtained for other ionic species. This shows the principal suitability of the experimental setup for phosphate tests. We observed a significant dependency of phosphate uptake into the MD probes on dialysate pumping rate and on ionic strength of the outside solution. In the soils, we observed uptake rates of the probes between 1.5 × 10 and 6.7 × 10 mol s cm in case of no citrate addition. Surprisingly, median uptake rates were mostly independent of the bulk soil stocks, but the P‐fertilized soil revealed a strong tailing towards higher values. This indicates the occurrence of hot P spots in soils. Citrate addition increased P yields only in the higher concentration but not in the forest soil. The order of magnitude of MD uptake rates from the soil samples matched root‐length related uptake rates from other studies. The micro‐radial citrate release in MD reflects the processes controlling phosphate mobilization in the rhizosphere better than measurements based on “flooding” of soil samples with citric acid in batch experiments. Important challenges in MD with phosphate are small volumes of dialysate with extremely low concentrations and a high variability of results due to soil heterogeneity and between‐probe variability. We conclude that MD is a promising tool to complement existing P‐analytical procedures, especially when spatial aspects or the release of mobilizing substances are in focus.
    Keywords: Plant Availability ; Diffusion Limitation ; Spatial Heterogeneity ; Carboxylates
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, February 2018, Vol.181(1), pp.31-35
    Description: Quantifying and understanding fluxes of methane (CH) and carbon dioxide (CO) in natural soil–plant–atmosphere systems are crucial to predict global climate change. Wetland herbaceous species or tree species at waterlogged sites are known to emit large amounts of CH. Upland forest soils are regarded as CH sinks and tree species like upland beech are not known to significantly emit CH. Yet, data are scarce and this assumption needs to be tested. We combined measurements of soil–atmosphere and stem–atmosphere fluxes of CO and CH and soil gas profiles to assess the contribution of the different ecosystem compartments at two upland beech forest sites in Central Europe in a case study. Soil was a net CH sink at both sites, though emissions were detected consistently from beech stems at one site. Although stem emissions from beech stems were high compared to known fluxes from other upland tree species, they were substantially lower compared to the strong CH sink of the soil. Yet, we observed extraordinarily large CH emissions from one beech tree that was 140% of the CH sink of the soil. The soil gas profile at this tree indicated CH production at a soil depth 〉 0.3 m, despite the net uptake of CH consistently observed at the soil surface. Field soil assessment showed strong redoximorphic color patterns in the adjacent soil and supports this evaluation. We hypothesize that there is a transport link between the soil and stem the root system representing a preferential transport mechanism for CH despite the fact that beech roots usually do not bear aerenchyma. The high mobility of gases requires a holistic view on the soil–plant–atmosphere system. Therefore, we recommend including field soil assessment and soil gas profiles measurements when investigating soil–atmosphere and stem–atmosphere fluxes to better understand the sources of gases and their transport mechanisms.
    Keywords: Ch 4 ; Soil Gas Profile ; Gas Flux ; Stem Gas Flux ; Co 2 ; Methanogenesis
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, April 2016, Vol.179(2), pp.129-135
    Description: Phosphorus is one of the major limiting factors of primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems and, thus, the P demand of plants might be among the most important drivers of soil and ecosystem development. The P cycling in forest ecosystems seems an ideal example to illustrate the concept of ecosystem nutrition. Ecosystem nutrition combines and extents the traditional concepts of nutrient cycling and ecosystem ecology. The major extension is to consider also the loading and unloading of nutrient cycles and the impact of nutrient acquiring and recycling processes on overall ecosystem properties. Ecosystem nutrition aims to integrate nutrient related aspects at different scales and in different ecosystem compartments including all processes, interactions and feedbacks associated with the nutrition of an ecosystem. We review numerous previous studies dealing with P nutrition from this ecosystem nutrition perspective. The available information contributes to the description of basic ecosystem characteristics such as emergence, hierarchy, and robustness. In result, we were able to refine Odum's hypothesis on P nutrition strategies along ecosystem succession to substrate related ecosystem nutrition and development. We hypothesize that at sites rich in mineral‐bound P, plant and microbial communities tend to introduce P from primary minerals into the biogeochemical P cycle (acquiring systems), and hence the tightness of the P cycle is of minor relevance for ecosystem functioning. In contrast, tight P recycling is a crucial emergent property of forest ecosystems established at sites poor in mineral bound P (recycling systems). We conclude that the integration of knowledge on nutrient cycling, soil science, and ecosystem ecology into holistic ecosystem nutrition will provide an entirely new view on soil–plant–microbe interactions.
    Keywords: Ecosystem Properties ; P Recycling ; P Nutrition Strategy ; Forest Nutrition ; P Acquiring
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 5
    In: Environmental Microbiology, June 2016, Vol.18(6), pp.1988-2000
    Description: Phosphorus () is an important macronutrient for all biota on earth but similarly a finite resource. Microorganisms play on both sides of the fence as they effectively mineralize organic and solubilize precipitated forms of soil phosphorus but conversely also take up and immobilize . Therefore, we analysed the role of microbes in two beech forest soils with high and low content by direct sequencing of metagenomic deoxyribonucleic acid. For inorganic solubilization, a significantly higher microbial potential was detected in the ‐rich soil. This trait especially referred to  olibacter usiatus, likewise one of the dominating species in the data sets. A higher microbial potential for efficient phosphate uptake systems () was detected in the ‐depleted soil. Genes involved in starvation response regulation (, ) were prevalent in both soils. This underlines the importance of effective phosphate (ho) regulon control for microorganisms to use alternative sources during phosphate limitation. Predicted genes were primarily harboured by hizobiales, ctinomycetales and cidobacteriales.
    Keywords: Soil Microbiology – Analysis ; Nucleic Acids – Analysis ; Phosphates – Analysis ; Forest Soils – Analysis ; Soil Phosphorus – Analysis;
    ISSN: 1462-2912
    E-ISSN: 1462-2920
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, August 2016, Vol.179(4), pp.472-480
    Description: Among several environmental factors shaping soil microbial communities the impact of soil nutrients is of special interest. While continuous application mainly of N and P dramatically shifts community composition during fertilization, it remains unclear whether this effect is consistent in generic, unfertilized beech forest ecosystems of Germany, where differences in nutrient contents are mostly a result of the parental material and climatic conditions. We postulate that in such ecosystems nutrient effects are less pronounced due to the possibility of the soil microbiome to adapt to the corresponding conditions over decades and the vegetation acts as the major driver. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the bacterial community composition in five different German beech dominated forest soils, representing a natural gradient of total‐ and easily available mineral‐P. A community fingerprinting approach was performed using terminal‐Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, while abundance of bacteria was measured applying quantitative real‐time PCR. Bacterial communities at the five forest sites were distinctly separated, with strongest differences between the end‐members of the P‐gradient. However the majority of identified microbial groups (43%) were present at all sites, forming a core microbiome independent from the differences in soil chemical properties. Especially in the P‐deficient soil the abundance of unique bacterial groups was highly increased, indicating a special adaption of the community to P limitation at this site. In this regard Correspondence Analysis elucidated that exclusively soil pH significantly affected community composition at the investigated sites. In contrast soil C, N and P contents did mainly affect the overall abundance of bacteria.
    Keywords: Core Microbiome ; Forest Soil ; Nutrient Content ; Diversity
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 7
    In: Environmental Microbiology, September 2016, Vol.18(8), pp.2767-2767
    Description: Byline: Fabian Bergkemper, Anne Scholer, Marion Engel, Friederike Lang, Jaane Kruger, Michael Schloter, Stefanie Schulz ***** No abstract is available for this article. *****
    Keywords: Recycling ; Forest Soils ; Soil Microbiology;
    ISSN: 1462-2912
    E-ISSN: 1462-2920
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, October 2010, Vol.173(5), pp.644-653
    Description: Riparian forests are assumed to play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle. However, little data are available on C stocks of floodplains in comparison to other terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we quantified the C stocks of aboveground biomass and soils of riparian vegetation types at 76 sampling sites in the Donau‐Auen National Park in Austria. Based on our results and a remotely sensed vegetation map, we estimated total C stocks. Carbon stocks in soils (up to 354 t ha within 1 m below surface) were huge compared to other terrestrial ecosystems. As expected, soils of different vegetation types showed different texture with a higher percentage of sandy soils at the softwood sites, while loamy soils prevailed at hardwood sites. Total C stocks of vegetation types were significantly different, but reflect differences in woody plant biomass rather than in soil C stocks. Mature hardwood and cottonwood forests proved to have significantly higher total C stocks (474 and 403 t ha, respectively) than young reforestations (217 t ha) and meadows (212 t ha). The C pools of softwood forests (356 t ha) ranged between those of hardwood/cottonwood forests and of reforestations/meadows. Our study proves the relevance of floodplains as possible C sinks, which should be increasingly taken into account for river management. Furthermore, we conclude that plant‐species distribution does not indicate the conditions of sedimentation and soil C sequestration over the time span of interest for the development of soil C stocks.
    Keywords: Carbon Stocks ; Organic Carbon ; Donau‐Auen National Park ; Fluvial Ecosystems ; Riparian Forest
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, December 2018, Vol.181(6), pp.894-904
    Description: Sonication is widely used for disruption of suspended soil aggregates. Calorimetric calibration allows for determining sonication power and applied energy as a measure for aggregate disrupting forces. Yet other properties of sonication devices (., oscillation frequency and amplitude, sonotrode diameter) as well as procedure details (soil‐to‐water ratio, size, shape, and volume of used containers) may influence the extent of aggregate disruption in addition to the applied energy. In this study, we tested potential bias in aggregate disruption when different devices or procedures are used in laboratory routines. In nine laboratories, three reference soil samples were sonicated at 30 J mL and 400 J mL. Aggregate disruption was estimated based on particle size distribution before and after sonication. Size distribution was obtained by standardized submerged sieving for particle size classes 2000–200 and 200–63 µm, and by dynamic imaging for particles 45 W). Thus, these sonication device properties need to be listed when reporting on sonication‐based soil aggregate disruption. The overall small differences in the degree of disruption of soil aggregates between different laboratories demonstrate that sonication with the energies tested (30 and 400 J mL) provides replicable results despite the variations regarding procedures and equipment.
    Keywords: Disaggregation ; Particle Size Fractions ; Reproducibility ; Round‐Robin Test ; Ultrasound
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, April 2004, Vol.167(2), pp.177-183
    Description: Risk assessment of heavy metal input into forest ecosystems requires information about metal fluxes from the forest floor (organic layer) into the mineral soil. Common methods for the monitoring of element fluxes are generally time‐consuming and expensive. Additionally, the reliability of the results is in part contested especially for trace elements, showing very low concentrations which are sometimes even below analytical detection limit. We used ion exchange resin tubes installed below the forest floor to determine heavy metal and As fluxes at 25 forest monitoring sites in Germany. Chloride tracer experiments and the comparison of our data with throughfall and lysimeter data, determined within the Level II monitoring network, proved the accuracy of our method. Mean trace element fluxes based on the resin method were 50 g As ha yr, 2 g Cd ha yr, 168 g Cu ha yr, 176 g Ni ha yr, and 186 g Pb ha yr.The results show that the organic layer may change into a source of heavy metals after emission has decreased. Austauscherharzröhren zur Bestimmung des Spurenelementeintrags in Mineralböden auf Waldstandorten Der Schwermetalleintrag von der Humusauflage in den Mineralboden ist eine wichtige Größe zur Risikoabschätzung der Schwermetallflüsse in Waldökosystemen. Herkömmliche Methoden zur Erfassung von Elementflüssen sind zeit‐ und kostenaufwändig. Bei Spurenelementen verringern analytische Probleme die Aussagekraft der ermittelten Daten. Mithilfe von Röhren, die mit Ionenaustauscherharz gefüllt sind und unterhalb der Humusauflage in den Boden eingebracht werden, haben wir auf 25 Waldstandorten Schwermetall‐ und As‐Flüsse gemessen. Chlorid‐Tracer‐Experimente und der Vergleich unserer Daten mit Stoffflussdaten aus dem Level‐II‐Monitoring bestätigen, dass mit unserer Methode Elementflüsse von der Humusauflage in den Mineralboden zuverlässig erfasst werden können. Mit den Austauscherharzröhren haben wir folgende durchschnittliche Elementflüsse bestimmt: 50 g As ha a, 2 g Cd ha a, 168 g Cu ha a, 176 g Ni ha a und 186 g Pb ha a. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Humusauflage nach Rückgang anthropogener Einträge zur Schwermetallquelle wird.
    Keywords: Heavy Metals ; Arsenic ; Forest Soils ; Element Fluxes ; Exchange Resin Tubes
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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