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  • Wiley Online Library  (227)
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  • 1
    In: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, January 2014, Vol.39(1), pp.71-79
    Description: Landform and landscape evolution may be convergent, whereby initial differences and irregularities are (on average) reduced and smoothed, or divergent, with increasing variation and irregularity. Convergent and divergent evolution are directly related to dynamical (in)stability. Unstable interactions among geomorphic system components tend to dominate in earlier stages of development, while stable limits often become dominant in later stages. This results in mode switching, from unstable, divergent to stable, convergent development. Divergent‐to‐convergent mode switches emerge from a common structure in many geomorphic systems: mutually reinforcing or competitive interrelationships among system components, and negative self‐effects limiting individual components. When the interactions between components are dominant, divergent evolution occurs. As threshold limits to divergent development are approached, self‐limiting effects become more important, triggering a switch to convergence. The mode shift is an emergent phenomenon, arising from basic principles of threshold modulation and gradient selection. As an example, the relationships among flow concentration, erosive force, and channel incision in fluvial systems are examined in the context of mode switching and thresholds. The commonly observed divergence in channel growth and fluvial dissection and network development, eventually transitioning to a stable, convergent configuration, is an emergent outcome of gradient selection and threshold modification, and does not imply any goal functions of balancing mass fluxes or limiting change. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Thresholds ; Mode Switching ; Divergent Evolution ; Convergent Evolution ; Emergence ; Geomorphic Systems
    ISSN: 0197-9337
    E-ISSN: 1096-9837
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, September 2011, Vol.25(5), pp.768-774
    Description: Field implementation of double‐blind sequential lineups has prompted a question about the impact on eyewitness decisions of an explicit not‐sure response option. In this laboratory study, a video crime was viewed by 378 participants who then attempted to identify the culprit from a six‐person sequential or simultaneous‐format lineup that either included or did not include the culprit. Witnesses were provided either dichotomous forced‐choice (FC) response categories (/) or a not‐sure option as one of three response categories (//). The not‐sure option (NSO) significantly decreased witness choosing compared to the FC condition but only for sequential lineups. Both correct identifications and false alarms decreased. Diagnosticity was greatest for a sequential lineup with a NSO. The results suggest a criterion decision shift for witnesses who view a sequential lineup with a not‐sure response option. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Lineups ; Eyewitnesses ; Identification ; Laboratories ; Attitudes ; Alarms ; Article;
    ISSN: 0888-4080
    E-ISSN: 1099-0720
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 21 December 2012, Vol.51(52), pp.13132-13135
    Description: superhelical filaments are obtained from monomeric repeat proteins by controlling the chemistry and solvent exposure at their terminal interfaces. The assembly was achieved in aqueous solution, at neutral pH value, and at room temperature. The building block was a recombinantly engineered designed tetratricopeptide repeat protein. Directed head‐to‐tail self‐assembly was driven by genetically encoded orthogonal native chemical ligation.
    Keywords: Biomaterials ; Nanostructures ; Protein Engineering ; Self‐Assembly ; Superhelical Scaffold
    ISSN: 1433-7851
    E-ISSN: 1521-3773
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 4
    In: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, May 2015, Vol.73(5), pp.1844-1851
    Description: To create a robust test object for the assessment of isotropic diffusion kurtosis and to investigate the relationships between barrier concentration and kurtosis and diffusion coefficients. Diffusion kurtosis imaging is an extension of conventional diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging which provides a means of assessing the degree to which diffusion processes of spin-bearing particles are non-Gaussian, a property that is quantified by the kurtosis. We present a set of test objects, each possessing a different concentration of colloidal dispersion, allowing barrier concentration of the dispersed colloidal particles to be related to the kurtosis of the water diffusion. Diffusion coefficients from the kurtosis model and the monoexponential model are compared. A relationship between barrier concentration and kurtosis is found, demonstrating that the diffusion process becomes less Gaussian as the barrier concentration is increased. Differences in the two estimates for the diffusion coefficients are examined. The test object is robust, displaying long-term reproducibility of results. Colloidal dispersions provide a suitable and stable test object for the assessment and reproducibility measurements of kurtosis.
    Keywords: Kurtosis ; Diffusion ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    ISSN: 0740-3194
    E-ISSN: 1522-2594
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  • 5
    In: Cognitive Science, August 2015, Vol.39(6), pp.1320-1347
    Description: The present studies investigate how the intentions of third parties influence judgments of moral responsibility for other agents who commit immoral acts. Using cases in which an agent acts under some situational constraint brought about by a third party, we ask whether the agent is blamed less for the immoral act when the third party intended for that act to occur. Study 1 demonstrates that third‐party intentions do influence judgments of blame. Study 2 finds that third‐party intentions only influence moral judgments when the agent's actions precisely match the third party's intention. Study 3 shows that this effect arises from changes in participants' causal perception that the third party was controlling the agent. Studies 4 and 5, respectively, show that the effect cannot be explained by changes in the distribution of blame or perceived differences in situational constraint faced by the agent.
    Keywords: Morality ; Intention ; Causation ; Manipulation ; Causal Chains
    ISSN: 0364-0213
    E-ISSN: 1551-6709
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  • 6
    In: River Research and Applications, February 2013, Vol.29(2), pp.149-160
    Description: Oxbow lakes, sloughs and other floodplain depressions associated with former channel positions are critical elements of floodplain hydrology, geomorphology and ecology. They comprise key elements of wetland and aquatic habitats and have important influence on the storage and routing of floodwaters. The hydrological connectivity between active river channels and floodplain depressions varies considerably in a qualitative sense, even within a single fluvial system. Several oxbows, sloughs and paleochannels were examined on the lower Sabine River, Texas/Louisiana, during a period of high but sub‐bankfull flow as well as at lower flows. Six different types of surface water connectivity with the main, active channel were identified: (i) flow through—a portion of the river flow regularly passes through the feature and returns to the main channel; (ii) flood channel—there is no hydraulic connection at normal flows, but at high flows the channels convey discharge, at least part of which returns to the main channel; (iii) fill and spill—the features fill to a threshold level at high flows and then overflow (mainly via ephemeral channels) into flood basins; (iv) fill and drain—the features fill at high river discharges but do not (except in large floods) overflow because as river discharge declines, water drains back to the river; (v) tributary occupied—tributaries draining to the abandoned channel continue to occupy it, flowing through it to the active channel; and (vi) disconnected—no flow is exchanged except during large floods. The age or stage of infilling and the relative elevation of abandoned channels are important first‐order controls of hydrological connectivity, but the lateral distance from the active channel is poorly related. Other critical controls are whether the cutoff section receives tributary input and whether a tie channel forms. The alluvial valley geomorphic context—specifically the presence of a meander belt ridge and flood basins—is also critical. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Alluvial Rivers ; Channel–Floodplain Connectivity ; Abandoned Channel Water Bodies ; Oxbow Lakes ; Sloughs ; Paleochannels
    ISSN: 1535-1459
    E-ISSN: 1535-1467
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  • 7
    In: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, July 2012, Vol.37(9), pp.936-950
    Description: The San Antonio River Delta (SARD), Texas, has experienced two major avulsions in the past 80 years, and a number of other historical and Holocene channel shifts. The causes and consequences of these avulsions – one of which is ongoing – were examined using a combination of fieldwork, geographic information system (GIS) analysis, and historical information to identify active, semi‐active, and paleochannels and the sequence of shifting flow paths through the delta. The role of deposition patterns and antecedent morphology, large woody debris jams, and tectonic influences were given special attention. Sedimentation in the SARD is exacerbated by tectonic effects. Channel aggradation is ubiquitous, and superelevation of the channel bed above the level of backswamp areas on the floodplain is common. This creates ideal setup conditions for avulsions, and stable, cohesive fine‐grained banks favor avulsions rather than lateral migration. Flood basins between the alluvial ridges associated with the aggraded channels exist, but avulsions occur by re‐occupation of former channels found within or connected to the flood basins. Large woody debris and channel‐blocking log‐jams are common, and sometimes displace flow from the channel, triggering crevasses. However, a large, recurring log‐jam at the site of the ongoing avulsion from the San Antonio River into Elm Bayou is not responsible for the channel shift. Rather, narrow, laterally stable channels resulting from flow splits lead to accumulation of wood. Some aspects of the SARD avulsion regime are typical of other deltas, while others are more novel. These includes avulsions involving tributaries and subchannels within the delta as well as from the dominant channel; tectonic influences on delta backstepping and on channel changes within the delta; avulsions as an indirect trigger for log‐jam formation (as well as vice‐versa); and maintenance of a multi‐channel flow pattern distinct from classic anastamosing or distributary systems. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Avulsion ; Delta ; San Antonio River ; Large Woody Debris ; Channel Evolution
    ISSN: 0197-9337
    E-ISSN: 1096-9837
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  • 8
    In: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, January 2016, Vol.41(1), pp.16-26
    Description: Biotic influences on geomorphology (and vice‐versa) are ubiquitous. This paper explores whether landforms may be extended (composite) phenotypes of biota, based on four criteria: process–form relationships between biota and landforms; evolutionary synchrony; selective pressure via ecosystem engineering and niche construction; and positive feedback benefitting the engineer organism(s). Coral reefs, peat bogs, biomantles, insect mounds, grassland soils, salt marshes, mangrove swamps, and some vegetation‐dependent sand dune types clearly meet these criteria. Karst landforms, meandering rivers, and tree uprooting pit‐mound systems meet the first three criteria, but positive feedback to engineer organisms has not been established. Research in biogeomorphology will surely identify other extended phenotypes. Implications are that biological evolution will continue to drive landscape metamorphosis, the appearance of new landform types, and presumably the disappearance of extended phenotypes associated with extinct species. Independently of extended phenotypes, tightly‐coupled geomorphological–ecological interactions such as coevolution, and biogeomorphic forms of ecosystem engineering and niche construction are common. The toposphere, encompassing Earth's landforms, is partly a biotic construct. Some elements would be present in an abiotic world, but the toposphere would not exist in anything resembling its contemporary state without a biosphere. This raises important questions with respect to Earth system evolution. The bio, litho‐, atmo‐, hydro‐, topo‐, and pedospheres coevolve at the global scale. Major biotic events have driven revolutions in the other spheres, but the atmosphere and the global hydrological system seem to have been relatively steady‐state at the global scale. The toposphere and pedosphere have not. This suggests that perhaps landforms and soils provide the major mechanisms or degrees of freedom by which Earth responds to biological evolution. Landforms and soils may thus be the ‘voice’ of the biosphere as it authors planetary change, even if clear biotic signatures are lacking. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Biogeomorphology ; Niche Construction ; Extended Phenotype ; Biogenic Landforms ; Toposphere
    ISSN: 0197-9337
    E-ISSN: 1096-9837
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  • 9
    In: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, November 2014, Vol.39(14), pp.1888-1899
    Description: Active and semi‐active anastomosing Holocene channels upstream of the delta in the lower valley of the meandering Neches River in southeast Texas represent several morphologically distinct and hydrologically independent channel systems. These appear to have a common origin as multi‐thread crevasse channels strongly influenced by antecedent morphology. Levee breaching leads to steeper cross‐valley flows toward floodplain basins associated with Pleistocene meander scars, creating multi‐thread channels that persist due to additional tributary contributions and ground water inputs. Results are consistent with the notion of plural systems where main channels, tributaries, and sub‐channels may have different morphologies and hydrogeomorphic functions. The adjacent Trinity and Sabine Rivers have similar environmental controls, yet the Trinity lacks evidence of extensive anastomosing channels on its floodplain, and those of the Sabine appear to be of different origin. The paper highlights the effects of geographical and historical contingency and hydrological idiosyncrasy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Anastamosing Channels ; Anabranching ; Crevasse ; Neches River ; Path‐Dependence
    ISSN: 0197-9337
    E-ISSN: 1096-9837
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  • 10
    In: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, February 2017, Vol.42(2), pp.347-354
    Description: The state of an Earth surface system (ESS) is determined by three sets of factors: laws, place, and history. Laws ( =  are the general principles applicable to any such system at any time. Place factors (  ) are the relevant characteristics of the local or regional environment. History factors (  ) include the previous evolutionary pathway of the ESS, its stage of development, past disturbance, and initial conditions. Geoscience investigation may focus on laws, place, or history, but ultimately all three are necessary to understand and explain ESS. The LPH triad is useful as a pedagogical device, illustrated here via application to explaining the world's longest cave (Mammoth Cave, KY). Beyond providing a useful checklist, the LPH framework provides analytical traction to some difficult research problems. For example, studies of the avulsions of three southeast Texas rivers showed substantial differences in avulsion regimes and resulting alluvial morphology, despite the proximity and superficial similarity of the systems. Avulsions are governed by the same laws in all cases [  ], and the three rivers have undergone the same sea‐level, climate, and tectonic histories, as well as the same general anthropic impacts [  ]. Though regional environmental controls are similar, local details such as the location of the modern main channel relative to Pleistocene meander channels differ, and thus these place factors explain the differences between the rivers. The LPH framework, or similar types of reasoning, is implicit in many types of geoscience analysis. Explicit attention to the triad can help solve or address many specific problems and remind us of the importance of all three sets of factors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Laws ; Place ; History ; Earth Surface System ; Contingency
    ISSN: 0197-9337
    E-ISSN: 1096-9837
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