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  • Wiley Online Library  (46)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Developmental Dynamics, March 2010, Vol.239(3), pp.1027-1033
    Description: Extensive development of the mammary gland occurs during puberty, when rising levels of ovarian hormones induce the formation of highly proliferative terminal end buds (TEBs) at the tips of mammary ducts. TEBs consist of an outer layer of cap cells and of inner body cells. TEBs invade the adipose stroma and bifurcate while extending the ducts to generate an arborized ductal network. We show that in murine mammary glands transcription factor AP‐2γ is strongly expressed in the cap cell layer and in a subset of body cells of TEBs. To decipher AP‐2γ functions during mammary development we generated AP‐2γ‐deficient mice. Their mammary glands displayed impaired ductal branching and elongation. Cellular proliferation within TEBs was reduced. Although estrogen receptor was expressed, exogenously administered ovarian hormones could not restore normal development. Therefore, AP‐2γ is functionally involved in branching morphogenesis of the mammary epithelium, possibly by controlling genetic processes downstream of ovarian hormones. Developmental Dynamics 239:1027–1033, 2010. © 2010 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
    Keywords: Ap‐2 ; Tfap2c ; Mammary ; Branching Morphogenesis ; Transgenic Mice
    ISSN: 1058-8388
    E-ISSN: 1097-0177
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  • 2
    In: Human Brain Mapping, August 2014, Vol.35(8), pp.4236-4248
    Description: We compared hippocampal volume measures obtained by manual tracing to automatic segmentation with FreeSurfer in 44 younger (20–30 years) and 47 older (60–70 years) adults, each measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over three successive time points, separated by four months. Retest correlations over time were very high for both manual and FreeSurfer segmentations. With FreeSurfer, correlations over time were significantly lower in the older than in the younger age group, which was not the case with manual segmentation. Pearson correlations between manual and FreeSurfer estimates were sufficiently high, numerically even higher in the younger group, whereas intra‐class correlation coefficient (ICC) estimates were lower in the younger than in the older group. FreeSurfer yielded higher volume estimates than manual segmentation, particularly in the younger age group. Importantly, FreeSurfer consistently overestimated hippocampal volumes independently of manually assessed volume in the younger age group, but overestimated larger volumes in the older age group to a less extent, introducing a systematic age bias in the data. Age differences in hippocampal volumes were significant with FreeSurfer, but not with manual tracing. Manual tracing resulted in a significant difference between left and right hippocampus (right 〉 left), whereas this asymmetry effect was considerably smaller with FreeSurfer estimates. We conclude that FreeSurfer constitutes a feasible method to assess differences in hippocampal volume in young adults. FreeSurfer estimates in older age groups should, however, be interpreted with care until the automatic segmentation pipeline has been further optimized to increase validity and reliability in this age group. . © .
    Keywords: Hippocampus ; Freesurfer ; Manual Segmentation ; Left Right Asymmetry ; Aging
    ISSN: 1065-9471
    E-ISSN: 1097-0193
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  • 3
    In: New Phytologist, March 2009, Vol.181(4), pp.802-807
    Description: •  A 13CO2 (99 atom‐%, 350 ppm) incubation experiment was performed to identify active bacterial endophytes in two cultivars of Solanum tuberosum, cultivars Desirée and Merkur. We showed that after the assimilation and photosynthetic transformation of 13CO2 into 13C‐labeled metabolites by the plant, the most directly active, cultivar‐specific heterotrophic endophytic bacteria that consume these labeled metabolites can be identified by DNA stable isotope probing (DNA‐SIP). •  Density‐resolved DNA fractions obtained from SIP were subjected to 16S rRNA gene‐based community analysis using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of generated gene libraries. •  Community profiling revealed community compositions that were dominated by plant chloroplast and mitochondrial 16S rRNA genes for the ‘light’ fractions of 13CO2‐incubated potato cultivars and of potato cultivars not incubated with 13CO2. In the ‘heavy’ fractions of the 13CO2‐incubated endophyte DNA, a bacterial 492‐bp terminal restriction fragment became abundant, which could be clearly identified as Acinetobacter and Acidovorax spp. in cultivars Merkur and Desirée, respectively, indicating cultivar‐dependent distinctions in 13C‐label flow. These two species represent two common potato endophytes with known plant‐beneficial activities. •  The approach demonstrated the successful detection of active bacterial endophytes in potato. DNA‐SIP therefore offers new opportunities for exploring the complex nature of plant–microbe interactions and plant‐dependent microbial metabolisms within the endosphere.
    Keywords: 13 C‐Dna Stable Isotope Probing ; 16s Rrna Gene‐Based Community Analysis ; Active Bacterial Endophytes ; Plant–Microbe Interaction ; Solanum Tuberosum Potato
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
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  • 4
    Article
    Article
    In: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, November 2018, Vol.53, pp.3-3
    Description: Byline: George Mantziaras, Sabine Schafer-Somi, George Mantziaras, Sabine Schafer-Somi ***** No abstract is available for this article. *****
    ISSN: 0936-6768
    E-ISSN: 1439-0531
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  • 5
    In: Environmental Microbiology, April 2007, Vol.9(4), pp.1035-1046
    Description: Benzylsuccinate synthase (Bss) is the key enzyme of anaerobic toluene degradation and has been found in all anaerobic toluene degrading bacterial isolates tested. However, only a few pure cultures capable of anaerobic toluene oxidation are available to date, and it is important to understand the relevance of these model organisms for bioremediation of hydrocarbon‐contaminated aquifers. Due to their phylogenetic dispersal, it is not possible to specifically target anaerobic toluene degraders using marker rRNA genes. We therefore established an assay targeting a ∼794 bp fragment within the Bss alpha‐subunit () gene, which allows for the specific detection and affiliation of both known and unknown anaerobic degraders. Three distinct tar‐oil‐contaminated aquifer sites were screened for intrinsic gene pools in order to identify and compare the diversity of hydrocarbon degraders present at these selected sites. We were able to show that local diversity patterns of degraders were entirely distinct, apparently highly specialized and well‐adapted to local biogeochemical settings. Discovered at one of the sites were genes closely related to that of spp., which provides evidence for an importance of iron reduction for toluene degradation in these sediments. Retrieved from the other two sites, dominated by sulfate reduction, were previously unidentified genes and also deeply branching putative homologues. We provide evidence for a previously unrecognized diversity of anaerobic toluene degraders and also of other hydrocarbon degraders using fumarate‐adding key reactions in contaminated aquifers. These findings enhance our current understanding of intrinsic hydrocarbon‐degrading microbial communities in perturbed aquifers and may have potential for the future assessment and prediction of natural attenuation based on degradation genes.
    ISSN: 1462-2912
    E-ISSN: 1462-2920
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Comparative Neurology, 06 February 1995, Vol.352(2), pp.297-307
    Description: The formation of ommatidia in the compound eyes and sensilla on the antennae of the honeybee was followed and the development of their sensory neurons was traced using an antiserum against taurine as a marker. Taurine‐like immunoreactivity (Tau‐IR) is expressed in sensory neurons of several modalities, namely visual, olfactory, gustatory, and mechanosensory. Staining intensity is very high in the larva and in the first half of the pupal stage and gradually decreases towards the end of metamorphosis. In the photoreceptor cells of the compound eyes, Tau‐IR can be detected from the fifth larval instar onwards, prior to differentiation of other components of the ommatidium. Already in the midstage larvae, when the antennal primordia of the adult still lie within the peripodial cavity, a few presumably mechanosensory neurons are labelled in the pedicellus of the developing antenna. The majority of the antennal sensory neurons which are located on the flagellum start to exhibit Tau‐IR upon pupation, long before any cuticular specializations such as sensory hairs or plates are detectable. All known types of antennal sensilla were identified and it could be shown that all of them are innervated by Tau‐IR sensory neurons. Thus, taurine immunocytochemistry can be applied as a useful label for developing sensory neurons. Functional implications of taurine during development are discussed. © 1995 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
    Keywords: Compound Eye ; Antenna ; Sensilla ; Apis Mellifera ; Insect
    ISSN: 0021-9967
    E-ISSN: 1096-9861
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  • 7
    In: Plant Journal, March 1998, Vol.13(5), pp.707-716
    Description: A protocol for establishment and high‐frequency ‐mediated transformation of morphogenic cell suspensions was developed to facilitate saturation mutagenesis and identification of plant genes by sequenced T‐DNA tags. Thirty‐two self‐circularized T‐DNA tagged chromosomal loci were isolated from 21 transgenic plants by plasmid rescue and long‐range inverse polymerase chain reaction (LR‐iPCR). By bidirectional sequencing of the ends of T‐DNA‐linked plant DNA segments, nine T‐DNA inserts were thus localized in genes coding for the ASK1 kinase, cyclin 3b, J‐domain protein, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, ORF02, an unknown EST, and homologues of a copper amine oxidase, a peripheral Golgi protein and a maize pollen‐specific transcript. In addition, 16 genes were identified in the vicinity of sequenced T‐DNA tags illustrating the efficiency of genome analysis by insertional mutagenesis.
    Keywords: Botany;
    ISSN: 0960-7412
    E-ISSN: 1365-313X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Comparative Neurology, 01 February 1989, Vol.280(1), pp.43-58
    Description: The distribution of dopamine in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion of the honeybee was investigated by means of immunocytochemistry with a well‐characterized antiserum against dopamine. The binding of the antiserum in paraffin serial sections was studied with the peroxidase‐antiperoxidase method. Dopamine‐like immunoreactive neurons are present in most parts of the brain and in the suboesophageal ganglion. Only the optic lobes are devoid of label. There are ca. 330 dopamine immunoreactive somata in each brain hemisphere plus respective suboesophageal hemiganglion, which is less than 0.1% of the entire neuronal population. Most of the labelled somata are situated within three clusters: one below the lateral calyx and two in the anterior‐ventral protocerebrum. Other labelled somata lie dispersed or in small groups around the protocerebral bridge, below the optic tubercles, proximal to the ventral rim of the lobula, and in the lateral and ventral somatal rind of the suboesophageal ganglion. Similar to neurons that react with an antiserum against serotonin, the fine processes of dopamine immunoreactive fibers have a varicose appearance which is typical for aminergic neurons. In addition to the neuronal staining, dopamine‐like immunoreactivity is also present in the sheath surrounding the brain and in the retina, where it is not restricted to any particular cell type. A detailed account is given for those neurons and groups of neurons that could be traced and reconstructed in some detail. A common feature of all dopamine immunoreactive fibers is that each fiber invades large volumes of neuropil, suggesting that dopamine is more important in mediating distant rather than local neural interactions.
    Keywords: Dopamine ; Immunocytochemistry ; Apis Mellifera ; Central Nervous System ; Biogenic Amines
    ISSN: 0021-9967
    E-ISSN: 1096-9861
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Comparative Neurology, 15 April 1986, Vol.246(3), pp.287-300
    Description: The distribution of GABA‐like immunoreactivity in the brain of the honeybee was investigated with antisera generated against GABA protein conjugates. The binding of the antisera in paraffin serial sections was studied with the peroxidase‐antiperoxidase method. GABA‐like immunoreactive fibers appeared in all main neuropile areas. The staining of the optic lobes showed pronounced stratification. The receptor cells of compound eyes, ocelli, and antennae were not labelled. Several prominent fiber tracts showed GABA‐like immunoreactivity, whereas other tracts were devoid of staining. There are no major immunoreactive commissures linking the two brain hemispheres with the exception of small commissures that bridge short distances between the β‐lobes and the antennal lobes. Several fibers in the cervical connective were also labelled; some of those may descend from the suboesophageal ganglion to the thoracic ganglia. The dense reactivity seen in the optic and antennal neuropiles implies that GABA is more important in mediating local rather than more distant neural interactions.
    Keywords: Γ‐Aminobutyric Acid ; Immunohistochemistry ; Apis Mellifera ; Insect Nervous System
    ISSN: 0021-9967
    E-ISSN: 1096-9861
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 10
    In: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, November 2018, Vol.53, pp.103-109
    Description: Aim of the study was to examine the effect of deslorelin on uterine tissues of eleven pre‐pubertal bitches aged 4.2 ± 0.6 m. Implants containing placebo (sodium chloride 0.9%;  = 4, G I), 4.7 mg ( = 3, ) or 9.4 mg ( = 4, ) deslorelin acetate (Suprelorin; Virbac, France), were administered subcutaneously. Signs of oestrus, vaginal cytology, serum progesterone (P4) and estradiol‐17β (E2) concentrations were monitored until the occurrence of oestrus. Bitches were ovariohysterectomized and sections from the uterine tissue were subjected to immunohistochemistry () for detection of Gn receptor (R), Kisspeptin ()10, Kisspeptin receptor (54), androgen receptor (), oestrogen receptor () α,β, and progesterone receptor (). Tissue sections were scored semi‐quantitatively using an immunoreactivity score () ranging from 0 to 300 (3). Since some animals were ovariohysterectomized before puberty ( = 1 from and  = 2 from ), and some in metestrus (all controls and 2 from and each), results from these animals were separately evaluated and compared to the controls. Results: No abnormalities were seen in uterine tissues. Kisspeptin 10 expression was low in all cell types, highest were seen in the vascular endothelial cells. The 54 was mainly detected in the luminal epithelial cells, superficial and deep uterine glands. The expression of 54 and α,β was especially high in bitches operated prepubertally. No difference was observed between the controls and experimental bitches operated in their first metestrus. The and α,β were exclusively expressed in superficial and deep uterine glands and luminal surface epithelial cells. The and Gn‐R expression was negative in all cells of all groups. We conclude that application of 4.7 or 9.4 mg deslorelin at the age of 4 months did not cause uterine disturbances. 54 expression might be influenced by pre‐pubertal deslorelin treatment or the changings related to approaching puberty; the latter is supposed in case of α,β.
    Keywords: Deslorelin ; Dogs ; Gn Rh ; Kisspeptin ; Receptors ; Steroid Hormones ; Uterus
    ISSN: 0936-6768
    E-ISSN: 1439-0531
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