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  • arXiv  (13)
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  • 1
    Description: Outliers are samples that are generated by different mechanisms from other normal data samples. Graphs, in particular social network graphs, may contain nodes and edges that are made by scammers, malicious programs or mistakenly by normal users. Detecting outlier nodes and edges is important for data mining and graph analytics. However, previous research in the field has merely focused on detecting outlier nodes. In this article, we study the properties of edges and propose outlier edge detection algorithms using two random graph generation models. We found that the edge-ego-network, which can be defined as the induced graph that contains two end nodes of an edge, their neighboring nodes and the edges that link these nodes, contains critical information to detect outlier edges. We evaluated the proposed algorithms by injecting outlier edges into some real-world graph data. Experiment results show that the proposed algorithms can effectively detect outlier edges. In particular, the algorithm based on the Preferential Attachment Random Graph Generation model consistently gives good performance regardless of the test graph data. Further more, the proposed algorithms are not limited in the area of outlier edge detection. We demonstrate three different applications that benefit from the proposed algorithms: 1) a preprocessing tool that improves the performance of graph clustering algorithms; 2) an outlier node detection algorithm; and 3) a novel noisy data clustering algorithm. These applications show the great potential of the proposed outlier edge detection techniques. Comment: 14 pages, 5 figures, journal paper
    Keywords: Computer Science - Social And Information Networks ; Physics - Physics And Society
    Source: Cornell University
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  • 2
    Description: Due to the nonlinearity of artificial neural networks, designing topologies for deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) is a challenging task and often only heuristic approach, such as trial and error, can be applied. An evolutionary algorithm can solve optimization problems where the fitness landscape is unknown. However, evolutionary algorithms are computing resource intensive, which makes it difficult for problems when deep CNNs are involved. In this paper, we propose an evolutionary strategy to find better topologies for deep CNNs. Incorporating the concept of knowledge inheritance and knowledge learning, our evolutionary algorithm can be executed with limited computing resources. We applied the proposed algorithm in finding effective topologies of deep CNNs for the image classification task using CIFAR-10 dataset. After the evolution, we analyzed the topologies that performed well for this task. Our studies verify the techniques that have been commonly used in human designed deep CNNs. We also discovered that some of the graph properties greatly affect the system performance. We applied the guidelines learned from the evolution and designed new network topologies that outperform Residual Net with less layers on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and SVHN dataset.
    Keywords: Computer Science - Neural And Evolutionary Computing
    Source: Cornell University
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  • 3
    Description: Generalized Operational Perceptron (GOP) was proposed to generalize the linear neuron model in the traditional Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and this model can mimic the synaptic connections of the biological neurons that have nonlinear neurochemical behaviours. Progressive Operational Perceptron (POP) is a multilayer network composing of GOPs which is formed layer-wise progressively. In this work, we propose major modifications that can accelerate as well as augment the progressive learning procedure of POP by incorporating an information-preserving, linear projection path from the input to the output layer at each progressive step. The proposed extensions can be interpreted as a mechanism that provides direct information extracted from the previously learned layers to the network, hence the term "memory". This allows the network to learn deeper architectures with better data representations. An extensive set of experiments show that the proposed modifications can surpass the learning capability of the original POPs and other related algorithms. Comment: 11 pages, 4 figures, 5 tables, 4 algorithms
    Keywords: Computer Science - Neural And Evolutionary Computing
    Source: Cornell University
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  • 4
    Description: Graph clustering is an important technique to understand the relationships between the vertices in a big graph. In this paper, we propose a novel random-walk-based graph clustering method. The proposed method restricts the reach of the walking agent using an inflation function and a normalization function. We analyze the behavior of the limited random walk procedure and propose a novel algorithm for both global and local graph clustering problems. Previous random-walk-based algorithms depend on the chosen fitness function to find the clusters around a seed vertex. The proposed algorithm tackles the problem in an entirely different manner. We use the limited random walk procedure to find attracting vertices in a graph and use them as features to cluster the vertices. According to the experimental results on the simulated graph data and the real-world big graph data, the proposed method is superior to the state-of-the-art methods in solving graph clustering problems. Since the proposed method uses the embarrassingly parallel paradigm, it can be efficiently implemented and embedded in any parallel computing environment such as a MapReduce framework. Given enough computing resources, we are capable of clustering graphs with millions of vertices and hundreds millions of edges in a reasonable time. Comment: 12 pages, 3 figures, 7 tables, journal paper
    Keywords: Computer Science - Social And Information Networks ; Physics - Physics And Society
    Source: Cornell University
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, 31 May 2019, pp.1-15
    Description: The traditional multilayer perceptron (MLP) using a McCulloch-Pitts neuron model is inherently limited to a set of neuronal activities, i.e., linear weighted sum followed by nonlinear thresholding step. Previously, generalized operational perceptron (GOP) was proposed to extend the conventional perceptron model by defining a diverse set of neuronal activities to imitate a generalized model of biological neurons. Together with GOP, a progressive operational perceptron (POP) algorithm was proposed to optimize a predefined template of multiple homogeneous layers in a layerwise manner. In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm to learn a compact, fully heterogeneous multilayer network that allows each individual neuron, regardless of the layer, to have distinct characteristics. Based on the complexity of the problem, the proposed algorithm operates in a progressive manner on a neuronal level, searching for a compact topology, not only in terms of depth but also width, i.e., the number of neurons in each layer. The proposed algorithm is shown to outperform other related learning methods in extensive experiments on several classification problems.
    Keywords: Neurons ; Biological Neural Networks ; Network Topology ; Learning Systems ; Topology ; Computational Modeling ; Nonhomogeneous Media ; Architecture Learning ; Feedforward Network ; Generalized Operational Perceptron (GOP) ; Progressive Learning ; Computer Science
    ISSN: 2162-237X
    E-ISSN: 2162-2388
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  • 6
    Description: The step of expert taxa recognition currently slows down the response time of many bioassessments. Shifting to quicker and cheaper state-of-the-art machine learning approaches is still met with expert scepticism towards the ability and logic of machines. In our study, we investigate both the differences in accuracy and in the identification logic of taxonomic experts and machines. We propose a systematic approach utilizing deep Convolutional Neural Nets with the transfer learning paradigm and extensively evaluate it over a multi-pose taxonomic dataset with hierarchical labels specifically created for this comparison. We also study the prediction accuracy on different ranks of taxonomic hierarchy in detail. Our results revealed that human experts using actual specimens yield the lowest classification error ($\overline{CE}=6.1\%$). However, a much faster, automated approach using deep Convolutional Neural Nets comes close to human accuracy ($\overline{CE}=11.4\%$). Contrary to previous findings in the literature, we find that for machines following a typical flat classification approach commonly used in machine learning performs better than forcing machines to adopt a hierarchical, local per parent node approach used by human taxonomic experts. Finally, we publicly share our unique dataset to serve as a public benchmark dataset in this field.
    Keywords: Statistics - Machine Learning ; Computer Science - Machine Learning ; Quantitative Biology - Quantitative Methods
    Source: Cornell University
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Computer and Information Technology; Ubiquitous Computing and Communications; Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing; Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, October 2015, pp.2130-2133
    Description: Devices equipped with accelerometer sensors such as today's mobile devices can make use of motion to exchange information. A typical example for shared motion is shaking of two devices which are held together in one hand. Deriving a shared secret (key) from shared motion, e.g. for device pairing, is an obvious application for this. Only the keys need to be exchanged between the peers and neither the motion data nor the features extracted from it. This makes the pairing fast and easy. For this, each device generates an information signal (key) independently of each other and, in order to pair, they should be identical. The key is essentially derived by quantizing certain well discriminative features extracted from the accelerometer data after an implicit synchronization. In this paper, we aim at finding a small set of effective features which enable a significantly simpler quantization procedure than the prior art. Our tentative results with authentic accelerometer data show that this is possible with a competent accuracy (76%) and key strength (entropy approximately 15 bits).
    Keywords: Acceleration ; Feature Extraction ; Accelerometers ; Sensors ; Quantization (Signal) ; Protocols ; Kernel ; Accelerometer ; Feature Extraction ; Quantization ; Information Signal
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  • 8
    Description: Feed-forward, fully-connected Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) or the so-called Multi-Layer Perceptrons (MLPs) are well-known universal approximators. However, their learning performance varies significantly depending on the function or the solution space that they attempt to approximate. This is mainly because of their homogenous configuration based solely on the linear neuron model. Therefore, while they learn very well those problems with a monotonous, relatively simple and linearly separable solution space, they may entirely fail to do so when the solution space is highly nonlinear and complex. Sharing the same linear neuron model with two additional constraints (local connections and weight sharing), this is also true for the conventional Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and, it is, therefore, not surprising that in many challenging problems only the deep CNNs with a massive complexity and depth can achieve the required diversity and the learning performance. In order to address this drawback and also to accomplish a more generalized model over the convolutional neurons, this study proposes a novel network model, called Operational Neural Networks (ONNs), which can be heterogeneous and encapsulate neurons with any set of operators to boost diversity and to learn highly complex and multi-modal functions or spaces with minimal network complexity and training data. Finally, a novel training method is formulated to back-propagate the error through the operational layers of ONNs. Experimental results over highly challenging problems demonstrate the superior learning capabilities of ONNs even with few neurons and hidden layers. Comment: 21 pages
    Keywords: Computer Science - Computer Vision And Pattern Recognition ; Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence ; Computer Science - Machine Learning
    Source: Cornell University
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  • 9
    Description: During the last decade, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have become the de facto standard for various Computer Vision and Machine Learning operations. CNNs are feed-forward Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) with alternating convolutional and subsampling layers. Deep 2D CNNs with many hidden layers and millions of parameters have the ability to learn complex objects and patterns providing that they can be trained on a massive size visual database with ground-truth labels. With a proper training, this unique ability makes them the primary tool for various engineering applications for 2D signals such as images and video frames. Yet, this may not be a viable option in numerous applications over 1D signals especially when the training data is scarce or application-specific. To address this issue, 1D CNNs have recently been proposed and immediately achieved the state-of-the-art performance levels in several applications such as personalized biomedical data classification and early diagnosis, structural health monitoring, anomaly detection and identification in power electronics and motor-fault detection. Another major advantage is that a real-time and low-cost hardware implementation is feasible due to the simple and compact configuration of 1D CNNs that perform only 1D convolutions (scalar multiplications and additions). This paper presents a comprehensive review of the general architecture and principals of 1D CNNs along with their major engineering applications, especially focused on the recent progress in this field. Their state-of-the-art performance is highlighted concluding with their unique properties. The benchmark datasets and the principal 1D CNN software used in those applications are also publically shared in a dedicated website. Comment: 20 pages, 17 figures, MSSP (Elsevier) submission
    Keywords: Electrical Engineering And Systems Science - Signal Processing ; Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence
    Source: Cornell University
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  • 10
    Description: Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) based on histopathological imaging has progressed rapidly in recent years with the rise of machine learning based methodologies. Traditional approaches consist of training a classification model using features extracted from the images, based on textures or morphological properties. Recently, deep-learning based methods have been applied directly to the raw (unprocessed) data. However, their usability is impacted by the paucity of annotated data in the biomedical sector. In order to leverage the learning capabilities of deep Convolutional Neural Nets (CNNs) within the confines of limited labelled data, in this study we shall investigate the transfer learning approaches that aim to apply the knowledge gained from solving a source (e.g., non-medical) problem, to learn better predictive models for the target (e.g., biomedical) task. As an alternative, we shall further propose a new adaptive and compact CNN based architecture that can be trained from scratch even on scarce and low-resolution data. Moreover, we conduct quantitative comparative evaluations among the traditional methods, transfer learning-based methods and the proposed adaptive approach for the particular task of cancer detection and identification from scarce and low-resolution histology images. Over the largest benchmark dataset formed for this purpose, the proposed adaptive approach achieved a higher cancer detection accuracy with a significant gap, whereas the deep CNNs with transfer learning achieved a superior cancer identification.
    Keywords: Computer Science - Computer Vision And Pattern Recognition ; Computer Science - Machine Learning ; Electrical Engineering And Systems Science - Image And Video Processing
    Source: Cornell University
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