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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Allergo journal international, 2014, Vol.23(1), pp.1-16
    Description: A large proportion of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergies in older children, adolescents and adults are caused by cross-reactive allergenic structures. Primary sensitization is most commonly to inhalant allergens (e.g. Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen). IgE can be activated by various cross-reactive allergens and lead to a variety of clinical manifestations. In general, local and mild - in rare cases also severe and systemic - reactions occur directly after consumption of the food containing the cross-reactive allergen (e. g. plant-derived foods containing proteins of the Bet v 1 family). In clinical practice, sensitization to the primary responsible inhalant and/or food allergen can be detected by skin prick tests and/or in vitro detection of specific IgE. Component-based diagnostic methods can support clinical diagnosis. For individual allergens, these methods may be helpful to estimate the risk of systemic reactions. Confirmation of sensitization by oral provocation testing is important particulary in the case of unclear case history. New, as yet unrecognized allergens can also cause cross-reactions. The therapeutic potential of specific immunotherapy (SIT) with inhalant allergens and their effect on pollen-associated food allergies is currently unclear: results vary and placebo-controlled trials will be necessary in the future. Pollen allergies are very common. Altogether allergic sensitization to pollen and cross-reactive food allergens are very common in our latitudes. The actual relevance has to be assessed on an individual basis using the clinical information. Worm M, Jappe U, Kleine-Tebbe J, Schäfer C, Reese I, Saloga J, Treudler R, Zuberbier T, Wassmann A, Fuchs T, Dölle S, Raithel M, Ballmer-Weber B, Niggemann B, Werfel T. Food allergies resulting from immunological cross-reactivity with inhalant allergens. Allergo J Int 2014; 23: 1-16 .
    Keywords: Medicine & Public Health ; Allergology;
    ISSN: 2197-0378
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Allergo Journal International, 2018, Vol.27(5), pp.147-151
    Description: Within the last decade, non-celiac gluten/wheat sensitivity (NCGS) has been increasingly discussed not only in the media but also among medical specialties. The existence and the possible triggers of NCGS are controversial. Three international expert meetings which proposed recommendations for NCGS were not independently organized and only partially transparent regarding potential conflicts of interest of the participants. The present position statement reflects the following aspects about NCGS from an allergist’s and nutritionist’s point of view: (A) Validated diagnostic criteria and/or reliable biomarkers are still required. Currently, this condition is frequently self-diagnosed, of unknown prevalence and non-validated etiology. (B) Gluten has not been reliably identified as an elicitor of NCGS because of high nocebo and placebo effects. Double-blind, placebo-controlled provocation tests are of limited value for the diagnosis of NCGS and should be performed in a modified manner (changed relation of placebo and active substance). (C) Several confounders hamper the assessment of subjective symptoms during gluten-reduced or gluten-free diets. Depending on the selection of food items, e.g., an increased vegetable intake with soluble fibers, diets may induce physiological digestive effects and can modify gastrointestinal transit times independent from the avoidance of gluten. (D) A gluten-free diet is mandatory in celiac disease based on scientific evidence. However, a medically unjustified avoidance of gluten may bear potential disadvantages and risks. (E) Due to a lack of diagnostic criteria, a thorough differential diagnostic work-up is recommended when NCGS is suspected. This includes a careful patient history together with a food-intake and symptom diary, if necessary an allergy diagnostic workup and a reliable exclusion of celiac disease. We recommend such a structured procedure since a medically proven diagnosis is required before considering the avoidance of gluten.
    Keywords: Gluten-free ; Self-diagnosis ; Nocebo effects ; Placebo effects ; Irritable bowel syndrome
    E-ISSN: 2197-0378
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Allergo Journal International, 2014, Vol.23(6), pp.186-199
    Description: The continued high prevalence of allergic diseases in Western industrialized nations combined with the limited options for causal therapy make evidence-based primary prevention necessary. The recommendations last published in the S3-guideline on allergy prevention in 2009 have been revised and a consensus reached on the basis of an up-to-date systematic literature search. Evidence was sought for the period between May 2008 and May 2013 in the Cochrane and MEDLINE electronic databases, as well as in the reference lists of recent review articles. In addition, experts were surveyed for their opinions. The relevance of retrieved literature was checked by means of two filter processes: firstly according to title and abstract, and secondly based on the full text of the articles. Included studies were given an evidence grade, and a bias potential (low/high) was specified for study quality. A formal consensus on the revised recommendations was reached by representatives of the relevant specialist societies and (self-help) organizations (nominal group process). Of 3,284 hits, 165 studies (one meta-analysis, 15 systematic reviews, 31 randomized controlled trials, 65 cohort studies, 12 case-control studies and 41 cross-sectional studies) were included and evaluated. Recommendations on the following remain largely unaltered: full breastfeeding for 4 months as a means of allergy prevention (hypoallergenic infant formula in the case of infants at risk); avoidance of overweight; fish consumption (during pregnancy/lactation and in the introduction of solid foods for infants); vaccination according to the recommendations of the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (Ständige Impfkommission, STIKO); avoidance of air pollutants and tobacco exposure and avoidance of indoor conditions conducive to the development of mold. The assertion that a reduction in house-dust mite allergen content as a primary preventive measure is not recommended also remains unchanged. The introduction of solid foods into infant diet should not be delayed. In the case of children at risk cats should not be acquired as domestic pets. Keeping dogs is not associated with an increased risk of allergy. The updated guideline includes a new recommendation to consider the increased risk of asthma following delivery by cesarean section. Additional statements have been formulated on pre- and probiotic agents, psychosocial factors, medications, and various nutritional components. Revising the guideline by using an extensive evidence base has resulted not only in an endorsement of the existing recommendations, but also in modifications and in the addition of new recommendations. The updated guideline enables evidence-based and up-to-date recommendations to be made on allergy prevention.
    Keywords: Allergy ; evidence ; S3-guidelines ; primary prevention ; revision
    E-ISSN: 2197-0378
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Allergo Journal International, 2015, Vol.24(7), pp.256-293
    Keywords: Allergy ; food ; diagnostic ; therapy ; prevention
    E-ISSN: 2197-0378
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