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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The American Journal of Pathology, April 2012, Vol.180(4), pp.1370-1377
    Description: The influences of cytotoxic drugs on endothelial cells remain incompletely understood. Herein, we examined the effects of chemotherapeutic agents in experimental angiogenesis models and analyzed vessel densities in clinical neuroblastoma tumor samples. Cisplatin (20 to 500 ng/mL), doxorubicin (4 to 100 ng/mL), and vincristine (0.5 to 4 ng/mL), drugs commonly involved in neuroblastoma therapy protocols, induced pro-angiogenic effects in different angiogenesis models. They enhanced endothelial cell tube formation, endothelial cell sprouting from spheroids, formation of tip cells in the sprouting assay, expression of αvβ3 integrin, and vitronectin binding. All three drugs increased global cellular kinase phosphorylation levels, including the angiogenesis-relevant molecules protein kinase Cβ and Akt. Pharmacological inhibition of protein kinase Cβ or Akt upstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase reduced chemotherapy-induced endothelial cell tube formation. Moreover, the investigated chemotherapeutics dose dependently induced vessel formation in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Tumor samples from seven high-risk patients with neuroblastoma were analyzed for vessel density by IHC. Results revealed that neuroblastoma samples taken after chemotherapy consistently showed an enhanced microvessel density compared with the corresponding samples taken before chemotherapy. In conclusion, our data show that chemotherapy can activate endothelial cells by inducing multiple pro-angiogenic signaling pathways and exert pro-angiogenic effects and . Moreover, we report a previously unrecognized clinical phenomenon that might, in part, be explained by our experimental observations: chemotherapy-associated enhanced vessel formation in tumors from patients with neuroblastoma.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0002-9440
    E-ISSN: 1525-2191
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The American Journal of Pathology, 1999, Vol.155(1), pp.285-292
    Description: Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. It has been shown that promoter sequences of the TSP-1 gene can be transactivated by the wild-type tumor suppressor protein p53. As human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection inactivates wild-type p53 of various cell types, we investigated whether HCMV infection is associated with reduced TSP-1 production. We found, in conjunction with accumulated p53, that TSP-1 mRNA and protein expression was significantly reduced in HCMV-infected cultured human fibroblasts. To determine whether the observed TSP-1 suppression depends on p53 inactivation, the p53-defective astrocytoma cell line U373MG was infected with HCMV. In these cells TSP-1 expression was also significantly reduced by HCMV infection whereas expression of the p53 mutant variant remained unaltered. In both cell lines the decreased expression of TSP-1 mRNA occurred early after infection (4 hours), indicating that HCMV inhibits TSP-1 transcription during the immediate-early phase of infection before HCMV DNA replication. Inhibition of HCMV DNA synthesis by ganciclovir did not influence TSP-1 reduction whereas the antisense oligonucleotide ISIS 2922, complementary to HCMV immediate-early mRNA, completely prevented the HCMV-mediated TSP-1 suppression. These findings strongly suggest a novel role for HCMV in the modulation of angiogenesis due to p53-independent down-regulation of TSP-1 expression.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0002-9440
    E-ISSN: 1525-2191
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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