The American journal of psychiatry, May 2002, Vol.159(5), pp.789-96
This study examined whether there were differences in the rate of depressive and anxiety disorders between HIV-infected women (N=93) and a comparison group of uninfected women (N=62). Secondary objectives were to examine correlates of depression in HIV-infected women-including HIV disease stage and protease inhibitor use-and the associations between symptoms of depression or anxiety and other potential predictor variables. Subjects underwent extensive semiannual clinical, psychiatric, neuropsychological, and immunological evaluations. Depressive and anxiety disorder diagnoses were assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were evaluated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (the 17-item version and a modified 11-item version) and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, respectively. The rate of current major depressive disorder was four times higher in HIV-seropositive women (19.4%) than in HIV-seronegative women (4.8%). Mean depressive symptom scores on the 17-item Hamilton depression scale also were significantly higher, overall, in the HIV-infected women (mean=8.7, SD=8.0) relative to comparison subjects (mean=3.3, SD=5.8). There was no significant between-group difference in the rate of anxiety disorders. However, HIV-seropositive women had significantly higher anxiety symptom scores (mean=8.8, SD=8.9) than did HIV-seronegative women (mean=3.6, SD=5.5). Both groups had similar substance abuse/dependence histories, but adjusting for this factor had little impact on the relationship of HIV status to current major depressive disorder. HIV-seropositive women without current substance abuse exhibited a significantly higher rate of major depressive disorder and more symptoms of depression and anxiety than did a group of HIV-seronegative women with similar demographic characteristics. These controlled, clinical findings extend recent epidemiologic findings and underscore the importance of adequate assessment and treatment of depression and anxiety in HIV-infected women.
Anxiety Disorders -- Epidemiology ; Depressive Disorder -- Epidemiology ; HIV Infections -- Epidemiology
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