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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The American journal of psychiatry, May 2002, Vol.159(5), pp.789-96
    Description: This study examined whether there were differences in the rate of depressive and anxiety disorders between HIV-infected women (N=93) and a comparison group of uninfected women (N=62). Secondary objectives were to examine correlates of depression in HIV-infected women-including HIV disease stage and protease inhibitor use-and the associations between symptoms of depression or anxiety and other potential predictor variables. Subjects underwent extensive semiannual clinical, psychiatric, neuropsychological, and immunological evaluations. Depressive and anxiety disorder diagnoses were assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were evaluated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (the 17-item version and a modified 11-item version) and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, respectively. The rate of current major depressive disorder was four times higher in HIV-seropositive women (19.4%) than in HIV-seronegative women (4.8%). Mean depressive symptom scores on the 17-item Hamilton depression scale also were significantly higher, overall, in the HIV-infected women (mean=8.7, SD=8.0) relative to comparison subjects (mean=3.3, SD=5.8). There was no significant between-group difference in the rate of anxiety disorders. However, HIV-seropositive women had significantly higher anxiety symptom scores (mean=8.8, SD=8.9) than did HIV-seronegative women (mean=3.6, SD=5.5). Both groups had similar substance abuse/dependence histories, but adjusting for this factor had little impact on the relationship of HIV status to current major depressive disorder. HIV-seropositive women without current substance abuse exhibited a significantly higher rate of major depressive disorder and more symptoms of depression and anxiety than did a group of HIV-seronegative women with similar demographic characteristics. These controlled, clinical findings extend recent epidemiologic findings and underscore the importance of adequate assessment and treatment of depression and anxiety in HIV-infected women.
    Keywords: Anxiety Disorders -- Epidemiology ; Depressive Disorder -- Epidemiology ; HIV Infections -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 0002-953X
    E-ISSN: 15357228
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The American journal of psychiatry, October 2002, Vol.159(10), pp.1752-9
    Description: Clinical and epidemiology studies have implicated depression as a risk factor in the morbidity and mortality of many human diseases. This study sought to determine if depression was associated with alterations in cellular immunity variables-specifically, natural killer (NK) cells and CD8 T lymphocytes-in women with HIV infection. Ninety-three women (63 HIV-seropositive, 30 HIV-seronegative) were studied as part of an ongoing longitudinal study conducted at two sites. Subjects underwent extensive clinical, psychiatric, and immunological evaluations. CBC counts and flow cytometry panels were conducted and NK cell activity assayed for all subjects; viral load was determined for HIV-seropositive subjects. The overall rate of major depression in the HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women was 15.87% (N=10 of 63) and 10.00% (N=3 of 30), respectively. HIV-seropositive women had higher depressive symptom scores than did the comparison subjects (Hamilton depression scale: mean=8.62 [SD=7.26] versus mean=5.67 [SD=7.33], respectively). Both groups had similar anxiety scores. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with higher activated CD8 T lymphocyte counts and higher viral load levels. Major depression was associated with significantly lower natural killer cell activity, and depressive and anxiety symptom scores showed a similar correlation. Our findings provide the first evidence that depression may alter the function of killer lymphocytes in HIV-infected women and suggest that depression may decrease natural killer cell activity and lead to an increase in activated CD8 T lymphocytes and viral load. The rate of current major depression in these HIV-seropositive women (none of whom had current substance abuse) is approximately twice that reported for HIV-seropositive men. The rate is also consistent with studies of women with other medical illnesses and with a recent epidemiology study that associated depression with mortality in HIV-infected women with chronic depressive symptoms. Depression may have a negative impact on innate immunity. Examination of killer lymphocytes may prove useful in assessing the potential relationship between depression, immunity, and HIV disease progression in women.
    Keywords: Cd8-Positive T-Lymphocytes -- Immunology ; Depressive Disorder -- Immunology ; HIV Infections -- Immunology ; Killer Cells, Natural -- Immunology
    ISSN: 0002-953X
    E-ISSN: 15357228
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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