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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Appl. Phys. Lett, 04 March 2010, Vol.96(Mar. 4, 2010)
    Description: We have characterized ultrananocrystalline diamond films with different surface terminations by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). The surface terminations were performed by plasma functionalization in atmospheres of hydrogen, fluorine, and oxygen. XPS proves the dense monolayer coverage of the surface functionalization. AFM and STM show low impact of the plasma treatment on the surface morphology. STS has been used to investigate the surface electronic properties, for H-terminated surfaces the electronic structure is dominated by the sp{sup 3} carbon phase of the grain surfaces; for O- and F-terminated surfaces, however, sp{sup 2} carbon from the grain boundaries seems to determine the surface band gap.
    Keywords: 08 Hydrogen ; Atomic Force Microscopy ; Carbon ; Diamonds ; Electronic Structure ; Fluorine ; Grain Boundaries ; Hydrogen ; Morphology ; Oxygen ; Plasma ; Scanning Tunneling Microscopy ; Spectroscopy ; Tunneling ; X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
    ISSN: 00036951
    E-ISSN: 10773118
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 18 January 2016, Vol.108(3)
    Description: A multiscale model of field emission (FE) from carbon nanotube fibers (CNFs) is developed, which takes into account Joule heating within the fiber and radiative cooling and the Nottingham effect at the tip of the individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the array located at the fiber tip. The model predicts the fraction of CNTs being destroyed as a function of the applied external electric field and reproduces many experimental features observed in some recently investigated CNFs, such as order of magnitude of the emission current (mA range), low turn on electric field (fraction of V/ μ m), deviation from pure Fowler-Nordheim behavior at large applied electric field, hysteresis of the FE characteristics, and a spatial variation of the temperature along the CNF axis with a maximum close to its tip of a few hundred  °C.
    Keywords: Nanoscale Science And Technology
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 27 October 2014, Vol.105(17)
    Description: Hysteresis in the field emission (FE) data of a chemical vapor synthesized carbon nanotube fiber cathode is analyzed in the regime where self-heating effects are negligible. In both the forward and reverse applied field sweeps, various FE modes of operation are identified: including Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling and space-charge limited emission from the fiber tip and FN emission from the fiber sidewall. Hysteresis in the FE data is linked to the difference in the field enhancement factors in the different FE modes of operation in the forward and reverse sweeps and related to changes in the fiber morphology.
    Keywords: Nanoscale Science And Technology
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 01 February 2010, Vol.96(5)
    Description: Utilizing the diluted magnetic semiconductor ZnMnSe for electron spin alignment near-perfect spin state preparation in semiconductor quantum dots has been demonstrated. We show that the electron spin polarization depends strongly on the electron concentration in ZnMnSe:Cl. Using a model which takes accurately the Zeeman sublevel occupation into account, we can explain well the experimentally observed results. We find that the electron concentration must be below the effective density of states to obtain full electron spin polarization and best device operation. This is especially important in II-VI spin-aligner materials with a low density of states.
    Keywords: Electronic Transport And Semiconductors
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: © 2010 American Institute of Physics (AIP)〈img src=http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/AIP_edited.gif style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 01 March 2010, Vol.96(9)
    Description: We have characterized ultrananocrystalline diamond films with different surface terminations by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). The surface terminations were performed by plasma functionalization in atmospheres of hydrogen, fluorine, and oxygen. XPS proves the dense monolayer coverage of the surface functionalization. AFM and STM show low impact of the plasma treatment on the surface morphology. STS has been used to investigate the surface electronic properties, for H-terminated surfaces the electronic structure is dominated by the s p 3 carbon phase of the grain surfaces; for O- and F-terminated surfaces, however, s p 2 carbon from the grain boundaries seems to determine the surface band gap.
    Keywords: Electronic Transport And Semiconductors
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: © 2010 American Institute of Physics (AIP)〈img src=http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/AIP_edited.gif style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 04/07/2008, Vol.92(14), p.143118
    Description: Reaction of disperse ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and mixtures of UNCD containing 10%-20% nanoboron carbide (B₄C) with methane gas at temperatures near 1200 K results in mechanically rigid compacts called nanocarbon ensembles (NCE) and boron-doped NCE, respectively. Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity results lead to strongly temperature dependent power factors that increase 30-40 fold for boron containing ensembles compared to undoped material. It is likely that boron substitutional doping of nanographite crystallites results in a multiplicity of electronic states within a narrow energy band around the Fermi level leading to an increase in configurational electronic entropy. Journal Article.
    Keywords: Natural Gas Materials Scienceboron ; Carbides ; Diamonds ; Electric Conductivity ; Entropy ; Fermi Level ; Methane ; Mixtures ; Multiplicity ; Power Factor ; Thermoelectric Properties;
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 07 April 2008, Vol.92(14)
    Description: Reaction of disperse ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and mixtures of UNCD containing 10%–20% nanoboron carbide ( B 4 C ) with methane gas at temperatures near 1200 K results in mechanically rigid compacts called nanocarbon ensembles (NCE) and boron-doped NCE, respectively. Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity results lead to strongly temperature dependent power factors that increase 30–40 fold for boron containing ensembles compared to undoped material. It is likely that boron substitutional doping of nanographite crystallites results in a multiplicity of electronic states within a narrow energy band around the Fermi level leading to an increase in configurational electronic entropy.
    Keywords: Nanoscale Science And Design
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: © 2008 American Institute of Physics (AIP)〈img src=http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/AIP_edited.gif style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 16 March 2009, Vol.94(11)
    Description: The addition of nitrogen to the synthesis gas during synthesis of ultrananocrystalline-diamond (UNCD) films results in films uniquely exhibiting very high n -type electrical conductivity even at ambient temperatures. This result is due to the formation of nanowires having elongated diamond core nanostructures and a sp 2 -bonded C sheath surrounding the core. The work presented here provides detailed confirmation of this important result through spatially resolved-electron energy loss spectroscopy. The direct observation of nitrogen incorporated in the sheath has been enabled. The incorporation of this nitrogen provides strong support to a plausible mechanism for the n -type conduction characteristic of the UNCD films.
    Keywords: Structural, Mechanical, Thermodynamic, And Optical Properties Of Condensed Matter
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: © 2009 American Institute of Physics (AIP)〈img src=http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/AIP_edited.gif style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 03/16/2009, Vol.94(11), p.111905
    Description: The addition of nitrogen to the synthesis gas during synthesis of ultrananocrystalline-diamond (UNCD) films results in films uniquely exhibiting very high n -type electrical conductivity even at ambient temperatures. This result is due to the formation of nanowires having elongated diamond core nanostructures and a sp 2 -bonded C sheath surrounding the core. The work presented here provides detailed confirmation of this important result through spatially resolved-electron energy loss spectroscopy. The direct observation of nitrogen incorporated in the sheath has been enabled. The incorporation of this nitrogen provides strong support to a plausible mechanism for the n -type conduction characteristic of the UNCD films.
    Keywords: Structural, Mechanical, Thermodynamic, And Optical Properties Of Condensed Matter;
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 03 September 2007, Vol.91(10)
    Description: Hydrogenated nanodiamond films consisting of 300 and 10 – 30 nm grain sizes were examined by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. C–H stretching modes were identified at 350, 360, and 375 meV . The mode at 375 meV was enhanced in the case of 10 – 30 nm grain size and it is stable up to in situ annealing to 〉 800 ° C . Complete hydrogen desorption occurs upon annealing to 1000 ° C . Exposure of the nanodiamond film to atomic hydrogen results in a strong quenching of the 375 meV C–H mode, most likely due to preferential etching of ( s p 2 ) -carbon-hydrogen at the surface and grain boundaries of the films.
    Keywords: Nanoscale Science And Design
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: © 2007 American Institute of Physics (AIP)〈img src=http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/AIP_edited.gif style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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