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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: BMC Genomics, Jan 17, 2012, Vol.13, p.25
    Description: Background Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) requires expression of the extracellular virulence gene expression programme (ST.sup.EX.sup.), activation of which is dependent on the signalling molecule guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp). Recently, next-generation transcriptomics (RNA-seq) has revealed the unexpected complexity of bacterial transcriptomes and in this report we use differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq) to define the high-resolution transcriptomic architecture of wild-type S. Typhimurium and a ppGpp null strain under growth conditions which model ST.sup.EX.sup.. In doing so we show that ppGpp plays a much wider role in regulating the S. Typhimurium ST.sup.EX .sup.primary transcriptome than previously recognised. Results Here we report the precise mapping of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 78% of the S. Typhimurium open reading frames (ORFs). The TSS mapping enabled a genome-wide promoter analysis resulting in the prediction of 169 alternative sigma factor binding sites, and the prediction of the structure of 625 operons. We also report the discovery of 55 new candidate small RNAs (sRNAs) and 302 candidate antisense RNAs (asRNAs). We discovered 32 ppGpp-dependent alternative TSSs and determined the extent and level of ppGpp-dependent coding and non-coding transcription. We found that 34% and 20% of coding and non-coding RNA transcription respectively was ppGpp-dependent under these growth conditions, adding a further dimension to the role of this remarkable small regulatory molecule in enabling rapid adaptation to the infective environment. Conclusions The transcriptional architecture of S. Typhimurium and finer definition of the key role ppGpp plays in regulating Salmonella coding and non-coding transcription should promote the understanding of gene regulation in this important food borne pathogen and act as a resource for future research.
    Keywords: Rna ; Transcription (Genetics) ; Genomes ; Salmonella ; Chromosomes ; Bacterial Genetics ; Gene Expression ; Genomics
    ISSN: 1471-2164
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: BMC Genomics, Jan 17, 2012, Vol.13, p.25
    Description: Background Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) requires expression of the extracellular virulence gene expression programme (ST.sup.EX.sup.), activation of which is dependent on the signalling molecule guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp). Recently, next-generation transcriptomics (RNA-seq) has revealed the unexpected complexity of bacterial transcriptomes and in this report we use differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq) to define the high-resolution transcriptomic architecture of wild-type S. Typhimurium and a ppGpp null strain under growth conditions which model ST.sup.EX.sup.. In doing so we show that ppGpp plays a much wider role in regulating the S. Typhimurium ST.sup.EX .sup.primary transcriptome than previously recognised. Results Here we report the precise mapping of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 78% of the S. Typhimurium open reading frames (ORFs). The TSS mapping enabled a genome-wide promoter analysis resulting in the prediction of 169 alternative sigma factor binding sites, and the prediction of the structure of 625 operons. We also report the discovery of 55 new candidate small RNAs (sRNAs) and 302 candidate antisense RNAs (asRNAs). We discovered 32 ppGpp-dependent alternative TSSs and determined the extent and level of ppGpp-dependent coding and non-coding transcription. We found that 34% and 20% of coding and non-coding RNA transcription respectively was ppGpp-dependent under these growth conditions, adding a further dimension to the role of this remarkable small regulatory molecule in enabling rapid adaptation to the infective environment. Conclusions The transcriptional architecture of S. Typhimurium and finer definition of the key role ppGpp plays in regulating Salmonella coding and non-coding transcription should promote the understanding of gene regulation in this important food borne pathogen and act as a resource for future research.
    Keywords: Gene Expression -- Research ; Bacterial Genetics -- Research ; Rna Sequencing -- Research ; Salmonella Typhimurium -- Genetic Aspects ; Salmonella Typhimurium -- Research
    ISSN: 1471-2164
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: BMC Genomics, 01 January 2012, Vol.13(1), p.25
    Description: Abstract Background Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) requires expression of the extracellular virulence gene expression programme (STEX), activation of which is dependent on the signalling molecule guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp). Recently, next-generation transcriptomics (RNA-seq) has revealed the unexpected complexity of bacterial transcriptomes and in this report we use differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq) to define the high-resolution transcriptomic architecture of wild-type S. Typhimurium and a ppGpp null strain under growth conditions which model STEX. In doing so we show that ppGpp plays a much wider role in regulating the S. Typhimurium STEX primary transcriptome than previously recognised. Results Here we report the precise mapping of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 78% of the S. Typhimurium open reading frames (ORFs). The TSS mapping enabled a genome-wide promoter analysis resulting in the prediction of 169 alternative sigma factor binding sites, and the prediction of the structure of 625 operons. We also report the discovery of 55 new candidate small RNAs (sRNAs) and 302 candidate antisense RNAs (asRNAs). We discovered 32 ppGpp-dependent alternative TSSs and determined the extent and level of ppGpp-dependent coding and non-coding transcription. We found that 34% and 20% of coding and non-coding RNA transcription respectively was ppGpp-dependent under these growth conditions, adding a further dimension to the role of this remarkable small regulatory molecule in enabling rapid adaptation to the infective environment. Conclusions The transcriptional architecture of S. Typhimurium and finer definition of the key role ppGpp plays in regulating Salmonella coding and non-coding transcription should promote the understanding of gene regulation in this important food borne pathogen and act as a resource for future research.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 1471-2164
    E-ISSN: 1471-2164
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: BMC genomics, 17 January 2012, Vol.13, pp.25
    Description: Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) requires expression of the extracellular virulence gene expression programme (ST(EX)), activation of which is dependent on the signalling molecule guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp). Recently, next-generation transcriptomics (RNA-seq) has revealed the unexpected complexity of bacterial transcriptomes and in this report we use differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq) to define the high-resolution transcriptomic architecture of wild-type S. Typhimurium and a ppGpp null strain under growth conditions which model ST(EX). In doing so we show that ppGpp plays a much wider role in regulating the S. Typhimurium ST(EX) primary transcriptome than previously recognised. Here we report the precise mapping of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 78% of the S. Typhimurium open reading frames (ORFs). The TSS mapping enabled a genome-wide promoter analysis resulting in the prediction of 169 alternative sigma factor binding sites, and the prediction of the structure of 625 operons. We also report the discovery of 55 new candidate small RNAs (sRNAs) and 302 candidate antisense RNAs (asRNAs). We discovered 32 ppGpp-dependent alternative TSSs and determined the extent and level of ppGpp-dependent coding and non-coding transcription. We found that 34% and 20% of coding and non-coding RNA transcription respectively was ppGpp-dependent under these growth conditions, adding a further dimension to the role of this remarkable small regulatory molecule in enabling rapid adaptation to the infective environment. The transcriptional architecture of S. Typhimurium and finer definition of the key role ppGpp plays in regulating Salmonella coding and non-coding transcription should promote the understanding of gene regulation in this important food borne pathogen and act as a resource for future research.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Transcriptome ; Guanosine Tetraphosphate -- Metabolism ; Salmonella Typhimurium -- Genetics
    E-ISSN: 1471-2164
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: BMC Genomics, August 16, 2014, Vol.15(1)
    Description: Background Prokaryotes have relatively small genomes, densely-packed with protein-encoding sequences. RNA sequencing has, however, revealed surprisingly complex transcriptomes and here we report the transcripts present in the model hyperthermophilic Archaeon, Thermococcus kodakarensis, under different physiological conditions. Results Sequencing cDNA libraries, generated from RNA isolated from cells under different growth and metabolic conditions has identified 〉2,700 sites of transcription initiation, established a genome-wide map of transcripts, and consensus sequences for transcription initiation and post-transcription regulatory elements. The primary transcription start sites (TSS) upstream of 1,254 annotated genes, plus 644 primary TSS and their promoters within genes, are identified. Most mRNAs have a 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) 10 to 50 nt long (median = 16 nt), but ~20% have 5'-UTRs from 50 to 300 nt long and ~14% are leaderless. Approximately 50% of mRNAs contain a consensus ribosome binding sequence. The results identify TSS for 1,018 antisense transcripts, most with sequences complementary to either the 5'- or 3'-region of a sense mRNA, and confirm the presence of transcripts from all three CRISPR loci, the RNase P and 7S RNAs, all tRNAs and rRNAs and 69 predicted snoRNAs. Two putative riboswitch RNAs were present in growing but not in stationary phase cells. The procedure used is designed to identify TSS but, assuming that the number of cDNA reads correlates with transcript abundance, the results also provide a semi-quantitative documentation of the differences in T. kodakarensis genome expression under different growth conditions and confirm previous observations of substrate-dependent specific gene expression. Many previously unanticipated small RNAs have been identified, some with relative low GC contents ([less than or equai to]50%) and sequences that do not fold readily into base-paired secondary structures, contrary to the classical expectations for non-coding RNAs in a hyperthermophile. Conclusion The results identify 〉2,700 TSS, including almost all of the primary sites of transcription initiation upstream of annotated genes, plus many secondary sites, sites within genes and sites resulting in antisense transcripts. The T. kodakarensis genome is small (~2.1 Mbp) and tightly packed with protein-encoding genes, but the transcriptomes established also contain many non-coding RNAs and predict extensive RNA-based regulation in this model Archaeon. Keywords: Transcriptome, Archaea, Promoters, Antisense RNAs, Small non-coding RNAs, Riboswitch, Hyperthermophile, Hydrogen regulation
    Keywords: Transcription (Genetics) -- Analysis ; Messenger Rna -- Analysis ; Genes -- Analysis ; Rna Sequencing -- Analysis ; Genomic Libraries -- Analysis
    ISSN: 1471-2164
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: BMC genomics, 12 August 2016, Vol.17(1), pp.629
    Description: Differential RNA-Seq (dRNA-Seq) is a recently developed method of performing primary transcriptome analyses that allows for the genome-wide mapping of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) and the identification of novel transcripts. Although the transcriptomes of diverse bacterial species have been characterized by dRNA-Seq, the transcriptome analysis of archaeal species is still rather limited. Therefore, we used dRNA-Seq to characterize the primary transcriptome of the model archaeon Haloferax volcanii. Three independent cultures of Hfx. volcanii grown under optimal conditions to the mid-exponential growth phase were used to determine the primary transcriptome and map the 5'-ends of the transcripts. In total, 4749 potential TSSs were detected. A position weight matrix (PWM) was derived for the promoter predictions, and the results showed that 64 % of the TSSs were preceded by stringent or relaxed basal promoters. Of the identified TSSs, 1851 belonged to protein-coding genes. Thus, fewer than half (46 %) of the 4040 protein-coding genes were expressed under optimal growth conditions. Seventy-two percent of all protein-coding transcripts were leaderless, which emphasized that this pathway is the major pathway for translation initiation in haloarchaea. A total of 2898 of the TSSs belonged to potential non-coding RNAs, which accounted for an unexpectedly high fraction (61 %) of all transcripts. Most of the non-coding TSSs had not been previously described (2792) and represented novel sequences (59 % of all TSSs). A large fraction of the potential novel non-coding transcripts were cis-antisense RNAs (1244 aTSSs). A strong negative correlation between the levels of antisense transcripts and cognate sense mRNAs was found, which suggested that the negative regulation of gene expression via antisense RNAs may play an important role in haloarchaea. The other types of novel non-coding transcripts corresponded to internal transcripts overlapping with mRNAs (1153 iTSSs) and intergenic small RNA (sRNA) candidates (395 TSSs). This study provides a comprehensive map of the primary transcriptome of Hfx. volcanii grown under optimal conditions. Fewer than half of all protein-coding genes have been transcribed under these conditions. Unexpectedly, more than half of the detected TSSs belonged to several classes of non-coding RNAs. Thus, RNA-based regulation appears to play a more important role in haloarchaea than previously anticipated.
    Keywords: Antisense RNA ; Archaea ; Haloferax Volcanii ; Leaderless Transcript ; Non-Coding RNA ; Promoter ; Transcriptome ; Drna-Seq ; Srna ; Genome, Archaeal ; Haloferax Volcanii -- Genetics ; RNA, Archaeal -- Metabolism
    E-ISSN: 1471-2164
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