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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Biological Psychiatry, 2010, Vol.67(6), pp.543-549
    Description: Accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of inflammatory processes and cytokines in particular in the pathophysiology of major depression (MDD) and resistance to antidepressant treatment. Furthermore, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) responsiveness to emotional stimuli has been suggested as a predictor of treatment response. This study investigated the association between genetic variants of the interleukin 1 beta ( ) gene and amygdala and ACC responsiveness to emotional stimuli and response to antidepressant treatment. In this analysis, 256 Caucasian patients with MDD (145 women, 111 men) were genotyped for variants rs16944, rs1143643, and rs1143634 in the gene (2q14). Response to antidepressant treatment over 6 weeks was defined as remission (≤ 7 on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression–21-question) and response (〉50% decrease on Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression–21-question). Brain activity under visual presentation of emotional faces was assessed in a subsample of 32 depressed patients by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T. Pharmacogenetic analyses show significant associations of the GG genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs16944 (odds ratio = 1.74; 95% confidence interval 1.2–4.3) and rs1143643 (odds ratio = 3.1; 95% confidence interval 1.3–7.8) (compared with the AA genotype) with nonremission after 6 weeks. The imaging analyses show that the number of G-alleles in both SNPs (rs16944 and rs1143643) was associated with reduced responsiveness of the amygdala and ACC to emotional stimulation. The present study suggests a negative effect of the gene on pharmacological response and amygdala and ACC function involving the same genotypes of two SNPs (rs16944, rs116343), which taken together increase the risk of nonremission over 6 weeks of antidepressant treatment in MDD.
    Keywords: Amygdala and Cingulate ; Antidepressant Treatment Response ; Depression ; Inflammation ; Interleukin 1 Beta ; Pharmacogenetics ; Medicine ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0006-3223
    E-ISSN: 1873-2402
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Biological Psychiatry, 1992, Vol.32(5), pp.411-425
    Description: Male rats made hypothyroid by administration of propylthiouracil plus sodium ipodate in drinking water were compared to controls in terms of period of circadian activity and temperature rhythms, amount of gross motor activity, and mean temperature. Animals were studied under entrainment, constant darkness (DD), and constant dim light (LL). There was no difference in the period of the circadian activity rhythm between groups in DD. However, hypothyroid rats showed significant blunting of the period-lengthening response to increasing ambient illumination. As expected, the period of the circadian temperature rhythm increased in controls with increasing ambient illumination. In contrast, the period of the circadian temperature rhythm in hypothyroid animals actually shortened under LL compared to DD. This blunting of the period-lengthening response to increasing ambient illumination of both activity and temperature rhythms in hypothyroid animals could not be explained by differences in activity level or mean temperature between the groups.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0006-3223
    E-ISSN: 1873-2402
    E-ISSN: 18733402
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