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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Catena, January 2014, Vol.112, pp.1-3
    Keywords: Soil Geography ; Palaeopedology ; Soil Landscapes ; Palaeosols ; Soil Archives ; Sciences (General) ; Geography ; Geology
    ISSN: 0341-8162
    E-ISSN: 1872-6887
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Catena, 2012, Vol.88(1), pp.57-67
    Description: The motivation for this article results from the fact that conceptual soil maps show oftentimes inaccuracies with regard to soil unit boundaries or misfits between original paper and actual soil-related information. Using the example of a German conceptual soil map (CSM), we introduce a procedure which could be considered as a framework for testing the terrain-related plausibility applied within a genetic based soil-ordering system. Framework means that all tests and the underlying methods can be adapted to specific targets. The procedure enables both reproducible integration of expert knowledge and application of statistically sound methods. The CSM of the German Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt was tested regarding the plausibility of colluvial and fluvial process domains. The plausibility test consists of four steps and was exemplified on a study area of 100 km . First, basic relief parameters were combined to the explaining relief parameters and enabling a classification of process domains by relative descriptions. Second, relief parameters and aggregated CSM soil units were integrated to soil-terrain objects (STO) executing a region-growing segmentation algorithm. In the third step, the one-dimensional or feature space of STO entities were clustered by using the K-means algorithm. The fourth step comprises the expert-based selection of reference clusters (RC) representing colluvial and fluvial process domains accepted as being true. Then, empirical cumulative distribution functions (ECDF) of RC and remaining soil unit-related STO clusters were compared by a traditional goodness-of-fit test whose suitability for estimation of terrain-related CSM plausibility is shown. Finally, the resulting ECDF distances were visualized. The testing procedure could also be used for the supervised selection of appropriate samples for automatic classification algorithms. The data integration approach is generally suitable for adopting existing data in computer-based systems. ► Integration of statistically sound DSM techniques and expert knowledge. ► Framework for basic tests of conceptual and legacy soil maps regarding terrain-related process domains. ► Usage of a goodness-of-fit measure for the comparison of soil-terrain-related distributions.
    Keywords: Digital Soil Mapping ; Terrain Analysis ; Segmentation ; Expert Knowledge ; Cluster Analysis ; Kolmogorov Smirnov Test ; Sciences (General) ; Geography ; Geology
    ISSN: 0341-8162
    E-ISSN: 1872-6887
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Catena, Dec 1, 2007, Vol.71(3), p.487(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2007.03.022 Byline: Gritta Grunewald, Klaus Kaiser, Reinhold Jahn Keywords: Alkaline soils; Weathering; Ettringite; Thaumasite; Hydrotalcite; Hydrocalumite; Layered double hydroxides Abstract: Industrial activities result in increasing amounts of technical substrates being deposited in landfills. These substrates are subject to weathering and pedogenic processes. We studied the chemical and mineralogical transformations on naturally weathered waste deposits of soda industry. Four sites differing in age (15, 19, 57, and 70 years) and derived from carbonatic slurry (mainly CaO.sup..H.sub.2O, CaCO.sub.3, NaCl) were selected. The formed soils, calcareous spolic Regosols, are weakly to strongly alkaline with pH values ranging from 8 to 12. Within 15 years, the substrate's initial pH of 12 drops rapidly in the topsoil due to the reaction of dissolved Ca either with CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere or evolved by microbial respiration and finally stabilizes at around 8.1. All soils show high electrical conductivity, up to 12.3 mS cm.sup.-1 at the youngest site. The electrical conductivity strongly decreases within 70 years of weathering due to leaching processes and the formation of less soluble secondary minerals. The content of organic C in the studied soils ranges from 2.4 to 70.8 g kg.sup.-1 and stocks increase with site age. Soil structure and soil color change distinctly. The binding of CO.sub.2 results in large amounts of carbonate, increasing with time. Seventy years after deposition, calcite [CaCO.sub.3] dominates the topsoil (0-30 cm depth), comprising about 80% of the soil material. The mineral composition was characterized by X-ray diffraction. Besides calcite, we found different quantities and different distributions of the less common minerals ettringite [Ca.sub.6(Al(OH).sub.6).sub.2(SO.sub.4).sub.3 26H.sub.2O], thaumasite [Ca.sub.6(Si(OH).sub.6).sub.2(CO.sub.3).sub.2(SO.sub.4).sub.2 24H.sub.2O], hydrocalumite [Ca.sub.2Al(OH).sub.7 2H.sub.2O] and hydrotalcite [Mg.sub.6Al.sub.2(CO.sub.3)(OH).sub.16 4H.sub.2O]. Formation and alteration of these minerals are basically influenced by changes in the soil pH. With progressing weathering neither thaumasite nor ettringite are stable due to the non-favorable soil reaction (pH[approximately equal to]8.1). In contrast, hydrocalumite and hydrotalcite exist in all investigated soils. They are stable also under weakly alkaline conditions and thus may exist in all carbonatic soils. Results indicate a surprisingly rapid soil development driven by the highly dynamic formation and alteration of minerals in carbonatic substrates under alkaline conditions. Author Affiliation: Institute of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Weidenplan 14, D-06108 Halle/S., Germany
    Keywords: Carbonates
    ISSN: 0341-8162
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Catena, 2004, Vol.56(1), pp.67-83
    Description: Soils conforming to Andosols in the World Reference Base (WRB) of Soil Resources have not yet been recognised in Germany. The aims of this study were to (i) show whether some German soils developed in volcanic parent materials are Andosols, (ii) investigate their pedogenetic development and (iii) determine their local distribution. We selected a soil on Quaternary basalt in the Eifel region (the "Windsborn" profile), and a soil from the summit of the Tertiary basaltic stratovolcano Vogelsberg (the "Kohlerwald" profile) northwest of Frankfurt am Main. The Windsborn soil is classified as a Silic Andosol. Allophane contents are near 10%, and allophane globules were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By progressively constraining field parameters in GIS-generated maps, we found that Andosols in the Mosenberg chain are confined to a few isolated occurrences. The Kohlerwald profile in the Tertiary Vogelsberg is an acid, base-poor and strongly weathered Aluandic Luvisol. Metal-humus complexes are the dominant colloidal phase. In the topsoil, both Fe (sub p) and Al (sub p) are in excess of Fe (sub o) and Al (sub o) values. Our data suggest the presence of phases like hydroxy-Al (e.g. from Al-interlayers or poorly ordered gibbsite) and opaline silica that are easily attacked by the alkaline (pH 9.5-10.5) pyrophosphate extractant, but may be resistant to the acid (pH 3) oxalate procedure. We conclude that there are limited occurrences of silandic Andosols in the Eifel area, Germany. The Windsborn soil is in an early pedogenetic development stage, but pedogenesis in the Kohlerwald soil has advanced beyond the Andosol phase to the stage of clay translocation. Therefore the existence of aluandic Andosols in Germany seems possible, but remains to be proven.
    Keywords: Volcanic Soils ; Pedogenesis ; Soil Classification ; Allophane ; Andosols ; Sciences (General) ; Geography ; Geology
    ISSN: 0341-8162
    E-ISSN: 1872-6887
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Catena, 2007, Vol.71(3), pp.487-496
    Description: Industrial activities result in increasing amounts of technical substrates being deposited in landfills. These substrates are subject to weathering and pedogenic processes. We studied the chemical and mineralogical transformations on naturally weathered waste deposits of soda industry. Four sites differing in age (15, 19, 57, and 70 years) and derived from carbonatic slurry (mainly CaO H O, CaCO , NaCl) were selected. The formed soils, calcareous spolic Regosols, are weakly to strongly alkaline with pH values ranging from 8 to 12. Within 15 years, the substrate's initial pH of 12 drops rapidly in the topsoil due to the reaction of dissolved Ca either with CO from the atmosphere or evolved by microbial respiration and finally stabilizes at around 8.1. All soils show high electrical conductivity, up to 12.3 mS cm at the youngest site. The electrical conductivity strongly decreases within 70 years of weathering due to leaching processes and the formation of less soluble secondary minerals. The content of organic C in the studied soils ranges from 2.4 to 70.8 g kg and stocks increase with site age. Soil structure and soil color change distinctly. The binding of CO results in large amounts of carbonate, increasing with time. Seventy years after deposition, calcite [CaCO ] dominates the topsoil (0–30 cm depth), comprising about 80% of the soil material. The mineral composition was characterized by X-ray diffraction. Besides calcite, we found different quantities and different distributions of the less common minerals ettringite [Ca (Al(OH) ) (SO ) 26H O], thaumasite [Ca (Si(OH) ) (CO ) (SO ) 24H O], hydrocalumite [Ca Al(OH) 2H O] and hydrotalcite [Mg Al (CO )(OH) 4H O]. Formation and alteration of these minerals are basically influenced by changes in the soil pH. With progressing weathering neither thaumasite nor ettringite are stable due to the non-favorable soil reaction (pH ∼ 8.1). In contrast, hydrocalumite and hydrotalcite exist in all investigated soils. They are stable also under weakly alkaline conditions and thus may exist in all carbonatic soils. Results indicate a surprisingly rapid soil development driven by the highly dynamic formation and alteration of minerals in carbonatic substrates under alkaline conditions.
    Keywords: Alkaline Soils ; Weathering ; Ettringite ; Thaumasite ; Hydrotalcite ; Hydrocalumite ; Layered Double Hydroxides ; Sciences (General) ; Geography ; Geology
    ISSN: 0341-8162
    E-ISSN: 1872-6887
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Catena, 1992, Vol.19(6), pp.511-519
    Description: Periods of soil carbonate formation have been used to separate the Upper Pleistocene and Holocene paleoclimate of Lanzarote Island into three stages: An early semi-arid (wet) period (〉26,000 yrs B.P.;) a dry (arid) period until 14,000 yrs B.P.; and a return to semi-arid conditions correlated with deglaciation in northern latitudes. These three stages correlate with the paleoclimate record in northern Africa and the Near East, where two upper paleosol horizons are found (Goodfriend & Magaritiz 1989) that may be correlated with the two stages of carbonization in the study area. This extends climatic correlation for this time interval from the Eastern Mediterranean to the mid-latitude Atlantic region.
    Keywords: Sciences (General) ; Geography ; Geology
    ISSN: 0341-8162
    E-ISSN: 1872-6887
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Catena, 1987, Vol.14(4), pp.359-368
    Description: Clay formation in soils was studied in four landscapes of different ages in Lanzarote (Canary Islands). Landscape IV is about 250 years old, IV subrecent, III early young pleistocene, and landscape I, late tertiary. The soils have developed from basic to ultrabasic pyroclastic fall deposits or basalt. Clay formation in soils of landscape IV is in an initial stage having a clay content of 1–2 kg/m , whereas in landscape IV 30–40 kg/m and in landscape III 100–200 kg clay/m are accumulated. In polygenetic soils of landscape I more than 3000 kg clay/m can be found. In the youngest soils IV , smectite is the most prominent clay mineral, whereas IV -soils are dominated by “amorphous” clay. The clay fraction in older soils contains illite, smectite as well as kaolinite in smaller quantities. The chemical composition of the clay fraction of soils with different ages changes significantly according to the mineral composition. In Böden von vier unterschiedlich alten Landschaften Lanzarotes (Kanarische Inseln) wurde die Tonfraktion untersucht. Das Alter dieser Landoberflächen, IV 250 Jahre alt, IV subrezent, III jüngeres Pleistozän und I spätes Tertiär, ist durch die jeweiligen Eruptiva bestimmt. Alle untersuchten Böden haben sich aus basischen bis ultrabasischen Pyroklastika und Basalten entwickelt. Die Tonbildung in Böden der jüngsten Fläche ist in einem Initialstadium mit einem Tongehalt von 1–2 kg/m , während in Fläche IV 30–40 und in Fläche III 100–200 kg Ton/m akkumuliert sind. Polygenetische Böden der Fläche I können mehr als 3000 kg Ton/m enthalten. Die jüngsten Böden IV weisen einen hohen Smectitgehalt auf, während in den Böden IV röntgenamorphe Tonminerale dominieren.Ältere Böden enthalten vor allem Illit und Smectit, sowie geringere Mengen an Kaolinit. Die chemische Zusammensetzung der Tonfraktionändert sich signifikant in den Böden unterschiedlichen Alters entsprechend der Mineralzusammensetzung.
    Keywords: Sciences (General) ; Geography ; Geology
    ISSN: 0341-8162
    E-ISSN: 1872-6887
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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