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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Cancer research, 01 January 2019, Vol.79(1), pp.99-113
    Description: The DNA-methylating drug temozolomide, which induces cell death through apoptosis, is used for the treatment of malignant glioma. Here, we investigate the mechanisms underlying the ability of temozolomide to induce senescence in glioblastoma cells. Temozolomide-induced senescence was triggered by the specific DNA lesion O-methylguanine (OMeG) and characterized by arrest of cells in the G-M phase. Inhibitor experiments revealed that temozolomide-induced senescence was initiated by damage recognition through the MRN complex, activation of the ATR/CHK1 axis of the DNA damage response pathway, and mediated by degradation of CDC25c. Temozolomide-induced senescence required functional p53 and was dependent on sustained p21 induction. p53-deficient cells, not expressing p21, failed to induce senescence, but were still able to induce a G-M arrest. p14 and p16, targets of p53, were silenced in our cell system and did not seem to play a role in temozolomide-induced senescence. In addition to p21, the NF-κB pathway was required for senescence, which was accompanied by induction of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Upon temozolomide exposure, we found a strong repression of the mismatch repair proteins MSH2, MSH6, and EXO1 as well as the homologous recombination protein RAD51, which was downregulated by disruption of the E2F1/DP1 complex. Repression of these repair factors was not observed in G-M arrested p53-deficient cells and, therefore, it seems to represent a specific trait of temozolomide-induced senescence. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings reveal a mechanism by which the anticancer drug temozolomide induces senescence and downregulation of DNA repair pathways in glioma cells.
    Keywords: Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins -- Metabolism ; Checkpoint Kinase 1 -- Metabolism ; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor P21 -- Metabolism ; DNA Repair -- Drug Effects ; DNA Repair Enzymes -- Antagonists & Inhibitors ; Glioblastoma -- Pathology ; Nf-Kappa B -- Metabolism ; Temozolomide -- Pharmacology
    ISSN: 00085472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 10/01/2014, Vol.74(19 Supplement), pp.2216-2216
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Cancer research, 01 September 2007, Vol.67(17), pp.8406-11
    Description: DNA pooling in combination with high-throughput sequencing was done as a part of the Sequenom-Genefinder project. In the pilot study, we tested 83,715 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), located primarily in gene-based regions, to identify polymorphic susceptibility variants for lung cancer. For this pilot study, 369 male cases and 287 controls of both sexes (white Europeans of Southern German origin) were analyzed. The study identified a candidate region in 22q12.2 that contained numerous SNPs showing significant case-control differences and that coincides with a region that was shown previously to be frequently deleted in lung cancer cell lines. The candidate region overlies the seizure 6-like (SEZ6L) gene. The pilot study identified a polymorphic Met430Ile substitution in the SEZ6L gene (SNP rs663048) as the top candidate for a variant modulating risk of lung cancer. Two replication studies were conducted to assess the association of SNP rs663048 with lung cancer risk. The M. D. Anderson Cancer Center study included 289 cases and 291 controls matched for gender, age, and smoking status. The Liverpool Lung Project (a United Kingdom study) included 248 cases and 233 controls. Both replication studies showed an association of the rs663048 with lung cancer risk. The homozygotes for the variant allele had more than a 3-fold risk compared with the wild-type homozygotes [combined odds ratio (OR), 3.32; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.81-7.21]. Heterozygotes also had a significantly elevated risk of lung cancer from the combined replication studies with an OR of 1.15 (95% CI, 1.04-1.59). The effect remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, and pack-years of tobacco smoke. We also compared expression of SEZ6L in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (n = 7), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; n = 52), and small cell lung cancer (SCLC; n = 22) cell lines by using Affymetrix HG-U133A and HG-U133B GeneChips. We found that the average expression level of SEZ6L in NSCLC cell lines was almost two times higher and in SCLC cell lines more than six times higher when compared with normal lung epithelial cell lines. Using the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus database, we found a approximately 2-fold elevated and statistically significant (P = 0.004) level of SEZ6L expression in tumor samples compared with normal lung tissues. In conclusion, the results of these studies representing 906 cases compared with 811 controls indicate a role of the SEZ6L Met430Ile polymorphic variant in increasing lung cancer risk.
    Keywords: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung -- Genetics ; Carcinoma, Small Cell -- Genetics ; Lung Neoplasms -- Genetics ; Membrane Proteins -- Genetics
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 15387445
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Cancer research, 01 January 2019, Vol.79(1), pp.274-285
    Description: Previous prospective studies assessing the relationship between circulating concentrations of vitamin D and prostate cancer risk have shown inconclusive results, particularly for risk of aggressive disease. In this study, we examine the association between prediagnostic concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)D] and the risk of prostate cancer overall and by tumor characteristics. Principal investigators of 19 prospective studies provided individual participant data on circulating 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)D for up to 13,462 men with incident prostate cancer and 20,261 control participants. ORs for prostate cancer by study-specific fifths of season-standardized vitamin D concentration were estimated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. 25(OH)D concentration was positively associated with risk for total prostate cancer (multivariable-adjusted OR comparing highest vs. lowest study-specific fifth was 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.31; trend 〈 0.001). However, this association varied by disease aggressiveness ( = 0.014); higher circulating 25(OH)D was associated with a higher risk of nonaggressive disease (OR per 80 percentile increase = 1.24, 1.13-1.36) but not with aggressive disease (defined as stage 4, metastases, or prostate cancer death, 0.95, 0.78-1.15). 1,25(OH)D concentration was not associated with risk for prostate cancer overall or by tumor characteristics. The absence of an association of vitamin D with aggressive disease does not support the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency increases prostate cancer risk. Rather, the association of high circulating 25(OH)D concentration with a higher risk of nonaggressive prostate cancer may be influenced by detection bias. SIGNIFICANCE: This international collaboration comprises the largest prospective study on blood vitamin D and prostate cancer risk and shows no association with aggressive disease but some evidence of a higher risk of nonaggressive disease.
    Keywords: Prostatic Neoplasms -- Blood ; Risk Assessment -- Methods ; Vitamin D -- Analogs & Derivatives
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
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