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Berlin Brandenburg


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  • 1
    Language: Spanish
    In: Conservation Biology, February 2012, Vol.26(1), pp.150-159
    Description: :  Habitat loss reduces species diversity, but the effect of habitat fragmentation on number of species is less clear because fragmentation generally accompanies loss of habitat. We compared four methods that aim to decouple the effects of fragmentation from the effects of habitat loss. Two methods are based on species‐area relations, one on Fisher's alpha index of diversity, and one on plots of cumulative number of species detected against cumulative area sampled. We used these methods to analyze the species diversity of spiders in 2, 3.2 × 4 km agricultural landscapes in Southern Judea Lowlands, Israel. Spider diversity increased as fragmentation increased with all four methods, probably not because of the additive within‐patch processes, such as edge effect and heterogeneity. The positive relation between fragmentation and species diversity might reflect that most species can disperse through the fields during the wheat‐growing season. We suggest that if a given area was designated for the conservation of spiders in Southern Judea Lowlands, Israel, a set of several small patches may maximize species diversity over time.
    Keywords: Arthropods ; Landscape ; Sloss ; Species Diversity ; Species‐Area Relation ; Artrópodos ; Diversidad De Especies ; Paisaje ; Relación Especies‐Área ; Sloss
    ISSN: 0888-8892
    E-ISSN: 1523-1739
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology, 04 June 2019
    Description: Offset schemes help to avoid or revert habitat loss through the protection of existing habitat (avoided deforestation) and/or the restoration of degraded areas (natural regrowth), respectively. The spatial scale of an offset scheme may influence which of these two outcomes is favoured and is an important aspect of the scheme's design. However, how spatial scale influences the trade-off between the preservation of existing habitat and restoration of degraded areas is poorly understood. Here, we used the largest forest offset scheme in the world, which is part if the Brazilian Forest Code, to explore how implementation at different spatial scales may affect the outcome in terms of the area of avoided deforestation and/or regrowth. Allowing offsets over large spatial scales led to a greater area of avoided deforestation and only a small area allocated to regrowth, whilst restricting offsets to small spatial scales led to the opposite pattern. The greatest total area (avoided deforestation and regrowth combined) was directed to conservation when implementing the scheme at small scales, especially in locations that are already highly deforested. To maximize conservation gains from avoided deforestation and regrowth, the design of the Brazilian forest offset scheme should have a "think local" focus by restricting the spatial scale in which offsets occur. A "think local" strategy could help to ensure that conservation benefits stay localized and promote the recovery of degraded areas in the most threatened forest landscapes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords: Amazon ; Avoided Deforestation ; Conservation ; Offsets ; Private Lands ; Restoration ; Spatial Scale
    ISSN: 08888892
    E-ISSN: 1523-1739
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