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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Engineering, April 2016, Vol.89, pp.121-130
    Description: Large amounts of fungicides are commonly applied to agricultural fields, particularly vineyards. Following their application, fungicides may accidentally be introduced into agricultural surface waters posing a potential risk for the integrity of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, the present study characterized the aquatic fungicide exposure at base flow and during rainfall-related runoff events in viticulture in Southern Palatinate (SW-Germany) between 2006 and 2009. The mitigation performance of three vegetated ditches (VD) and five vegetated detention ponds (DP) was assessed. The measurements uncovered the presence of 4 to 11 different fungicide compounds in each of the 81 samples. During runoff events, the ecotoxicological potential – expressed as the sum of toxic units calculated based on the acute toxicity towards algae, and fish – of some of the mixtures detected at the inlet of the VD or DP exceeded the Uniform Principle threshold set by the European Union. Both the VD and the DP systems reduced the median fungicide concentrations and thus their associated ecotoxicological potential by 56% and 38%, respectively. This fungicide mitigation efficiency was mainly explained by the plant density and size-related properties of the vegetated systems. Although VP and DP are promising tools to mitigate fungicide exposure, a better mechanistic understanding of the factors triggering the remediation potential finally feeding back into policy decision making is required.
    Keywords: Viticulture ; Pesticide ; Wetland ; Mitigation ; Runoff ; Agricultural Streams ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0925-8574
    E-ISSN: 1872-6992
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Engineering, 2016, Vol.89, pp.121-130
    Description: Large amounts of fungicides are commonly applied to agricultural fields, particularly vineyards. Following their application, fungicides may accidentally be introduced into agricultural surface waters posing a potential risk for the integrity of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, the present study...
    Keywords: Other Natural Sciences Not Elsewhere Specified ; Övrig Annan Naturvetenskap
    ISSN: 0925-8574
    E-ISSN: 18726992
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Engineering, 2011, Vol.37(6), pp.955-962
    Description: In summer 2008, an experiment on retention of a mixture of five pesticides in the Lier experimental wetland site (Norway) was performed. Two vegetated cells with hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 280 min and 330 min and one cell without vegetation (HRT of 132 min) of 120 m surface area each were investigated regarding their ability to reduce peak concentrations, pesticide masses and predicted adverse effects. Discrete water, plant and sediment samples were taken and analysed. The inlet peak concentrations of the pesticides dimethoate, dicamba, trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole ranged from 18 ng/L up to 5904 ng/L. The mean reduction of peak concentration was 72% in the non-vegetated cell and up to 91% in the vegetated cells. Less than 5% of the masses were retained within the wetlands. Uptake and sorption by plants was low (up to 4%), however, higher for the vegetated cell dominated by L. than for the one with L. as dominant plant. The toxic units (TU) approach was used to describe the potential reduction of toxicity within the wetland cells. Calculated toxicity of the substances decreased by 79% in the non-vegetated cell and by 95% in the two vegetated cells. Despite the low mass retention, the vegetated wetland system reduced the toxic effects, expressed as toxic units from values of 0.24 to 0.01, i.e. a concentration two orders of magnitude below the acute toxicity threshold, within a distance of 40 m while the non vegetated would need to be about 64 m long for the same efficiency.
    Keywords: Constructed Wetland ; Pesticide ; Mitigation ; Nonpoint-Source Pollution ; Toxic Units ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0925-8574
    E-ISSN: 1872-6992
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Engineering, 2001, Vol.18(2), pp.239-245
    Description: Constructed wetlands have been widely used to treat different types of agricultural point and nonpoint source pollution including nutrients, sediments and some herbicides. However, very little is known about the effectiveness of constructed wetlands in controlling nonpoint source insecticide pollution. Here we describe the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), nutrients and spraydrift-borne azinphos-methyl (AZP) at the inlet and outlet of a 0.44-ha vegetated pond. One tributary, which receives contaminants from a 15-ha orchard area, flows directly through the wetland, before it enters the Lourens River, South Africa. A tracer experiment with Rhodamin B was undertaken to find the optimal timing for inlet and outlet sampling performance. The retentions of TSS, ortho-phosphate and nitrate during dry weather conditions were 15, 54 and 70%. Concentration levels of AZP were reduced below the wetland by 90.8 plus or minus 0.7%, from 0.65 plus or minus 0.08 to 0.06 plus or minus 0.01 mu g/l (n = 5). The reduction of AZP load was 54.1 plus or minus 3.8%. A 24-h in situ bioassay employing midge larvae (Chironomus spec.) revealed a significant (ANOVA, Fisher's PLSD; P less than or equal to 0.01) reduction of toxicity. Mortality in two separate trials was 41.3 plus or minus 2.4% and 46.3 plus or minus 1.2% at the inlet station and 2.5 plus or minus 1.4 and 3.8 plus or minus 1.2% at the outlet station during days with spraydrift deposition into the tributary upstream of the wetland. During time intervals without any spraying in the catchment, mortality of the midge larvae in both trials was 1.2 plus or minus 1.2% at the inlet station and zero at the outlet station (n = 4 for each trial). We conclude that construction of small vegetated ponds is a suitable risk reduction strategy for agricultural nonpoint source insecticide input into surface waters.
    Keywords: Azinphos-Methyl ; Insecticide ; In Situ Bioassay ; Nonpoint Source Pollution ; Retention ; Spraydrift ; Toxicity ; Wetlands ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0925-8574
    E-ISSN: 1872-6992
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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