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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2011, Vol.74(5), pp.1203-1209
    Description: Teflubenzuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor was used in a two-generation test with (Insecta) to assess effects over a full life cycle from the first-instar larvae in the parental (P) generation until emergence in the subsequent F1 generation. Sediment spiked with teflubenzuron ranging from 10 to 390.6 μg/kg sediment dry weight (dw) was used. EC -values for fecundity and fertility were 112.7 and 74.5 μg/kg dw, respectively. Significant adverse effects were observed compared to the solvent control for emergence rate ( 〈0.01) and also for developmental rate. No observed effect concentrations values were lower for emergence rate in the F1 generation (62.5 μg/kg dw) than in the P generation (100 μg/kg dw), demonstrating that the F1 generation was more affected than the P generation. Thus, this two-generation test may help detecting population level effects as an amendment to the risk assessment for chronic exposures to endocrine disrupting compounds.
    Keywords: Teflubenzuron ; Csi ; Chironomus Riparius ; Two-Generation Test ; Population-Level Effects ; Ecology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0147-6513
    E-ISSN: 1090-2414
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Sept 1, 2013, Vol.95, p.137(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.05.025 Byline: Mirco Bundschuh, Jochen P. Zubrod, Patricia Klemm, David Elsaesser, Christoph Stang, Ralf Schulz Abstract: The present study investigated sublethal effects of a field relevant pesticide mixture (one herbicide, three fungicides, five insecticides) on Gammarus fossarum by considering different peak exposure scenarios, which may be generated by the inherent properties of vegetated ditches. Additional experiments aimed at the identification of germane exposure pathways (food and water). Therefore, G. fossarum were exposed in independent experiments to three scenarios, which differed besides in the peak concentration of the pesticide mixture also in the mixture's composition and exposure duration (n=20 per treatment). The exposure duration of 12 or 120min was followed by a seven-day post-exposure observation period. At a constant concentration-time product, a lower exposure duration in concert with a proportionally higher peak concentration caused a substantially elevated ecotoxicity compared to a treatment with a longer exposure duration at a lower peak concentration. Given the importance of the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin for the mixture's ecotoxicity it may be concluded that the fast mode of action of pyrethroids mainly explains this observation. Moreover, field relevant concentrations of the pesticide mixture applied at an exposure duration of 120min resulted in reduced gammarids' feeding rate, which may be indicative for shifts in the ecosystem function of leaf litter breakdown and hence the provision of energy for local and downstream communities. Finally, the present study indicated that both pathways of exposure, namely via food or water, reduce gammarids' feeding rate synergistically. This suggests that both exposure pathways should be considered for compounds exhibiting a high K.sub.ow (e.g. pyrethroids) during the risk assessment of single substances and mixtures. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau/Palatinate, Germany (b) Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden Article History: Received 7 December 2012; Revised 7 May 2013; Accepted 23 May 2013
    Keywords: Fungicides -- Analysis ; Insecticides -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0147-6513
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2010, Vol.73(7), pp.1674-1680
    Description: Current aquatic environmental risk assessment of plant protection products or biocides does not consider effects on organisms involved in leaf litter breakdown, a fundamental ecosystem process in streams. Therefore, direct ecotoxicological implications of tebuconazole, a frequently used triazole fungicide, on the leaf-shredding amphipod , were assessed. While acute toxicity was low (96h-LC =1347 μg/L), feeding rate, a sublethal endpoint, was significantly reduced after seven days of exposure to 600 μg/L. At the same concentration, but during a three week exposure under semi-static conditions, gammarids showed significant reductions in feeding, but also in assimilation and growth. At 200 μg/L, however, only assimilation was significantly affected. As these endpoints can be used to evaluate the ecotoxicity of a broad range of chemicals and to deduce possible implications in the functioning of ecosystems, the inclusion of similar experimental set-ups might further improve aquatic environmental risk assessment.
    Keywords: Gammarus ; Shredder ; Triazole Fungicide ; Sublethal Endpoints ; Environmental Risk Assessment ; Confidence Interval Testing ; Ecology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0147-6513
    E-ISSN: 1090-2414
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 01 September 2013, Vol.95, pp.137-143
    Description: The present study investigated sublethal effects of a field relevant pesticide mixture (one herbicide, three fungicides, five insecticides) on by considering different peak exposure scenarios, which may be generated by the inherent properties of vegetated ditches. Additional experiments aimed at the identification of germane exposure pathways (food and water). Therefore, were exposed in independent experiments to three scenarios, which differed besides in the peak concentration of the pesticide mixture also in the mixture's composition and exposure duration ( =20 per treatment). The exposure duration of 12 or 120 min was followed by a seven-day post-exposure observation period. At a constant concentration–time product, a lower exposure duration in concert with a proportionally higher peak concentration caused a substantially elevated ecotoxicity compared to a treatment with a longer exposure duration at a lower peak concentration. Given the importance of the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin for the mixture's ecotoxicity it may be concluded that the fast mode of action of pyrethroids mainly explains this observation. Moreover, field relevant concentrations of the pesticide mixture applied at an exposure duration of 120 min resulted in reduced gammarids' feeding rate, which may be indicative for shifts in the ecosystem function of leaf litter breakdown and hence the provision of energy for local and downstream communities. Finally, the present study indicated that both pathways of exposure, namely via food or water, reduce gammarids' feeding rate synergistically. This suggests that both exposure pathways should be considered for compounds exhibiting a high K (e.g. pyrethroids) during the risk assessment of single substances and mixtures.
    Keywords: Feeding ; Mixture Toxicity ; Herbicide ; Insecticide ; Fungicide ; Peak Exposure ; Ecology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0147-6513
    E-ISSN: 1090-2414
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, January 2015, Vol.111, pp.263-270
    Description: Studies assessing the acute and chronic toxicity of silver nanoparticle (nAg) materials rarely consider potential implications of environmental variables. In order to increase our understanding in this respect, we investigated the acute and chronic effects of various nAg materials on . Thereby, different nanoparticle size classes with a citrate coating (20-, ~30-, 60- as well as 100-nm nAg) and one size class without any coating (140 nm) were tested, considering at the same time two pH levels (6.5 and 8.0) as well as the absence or presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM; 〈0.1 or 8.0 mg total organic carbon/L). Results display a reduced toxicity of nAg in media with higher pH and the presence of DOM as well as increasing initial particle size, if similarly coated. This suggests that the associated fraction of Ag species 〈2 nm (including Ag ) is driving the nAg toxicity. This hypothesis is supported by normalizing the 48-h EC -values to Ag species 〈2 nm, which displays comparable toxicity estimates for the majority of the nAg materials assessed. It may therefore be concluded that a combination of both the particle characteristics, i.e. its initial size and surface coating, and environmental factors trigger the toxicity of ion-releasing nanoparticles.
    Keywords: Nanomaterial ; Silver ; Acute Toxicity ; Crustacean ; Environmental Conditions ; Ecology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0147-6513
    E-ISSN: 1090-2414
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 2013, Vol.95, pp.137-143
    Description: The present study investigated sublethal effects of a field relevant pesticide mixture (one herbicide, three fungicides, five insecticides) on Gammarus fossarum by considering different peak exposure scenarios, which may be generated by the inherent properties of vegetated ditches. Additional experiments aimed at the identification of germane exposure pathways (food and water). Therefore, G. fossarum were exposed in independent experiments to three scenarios, which differed besides in the peak concentration of the pesticide mixture also in the mixture's composition and exposure duration (n=20 per treatment). The exposure duration of 12 or 120min was followed by a seven-day post-exposure observation period. At a constant concentration–time product, a lower exposure duration in concert with a proportionally higher peak concentration caused a substantially elevated ecotoxicity compared to a treatment with a longer exposure duration at a lower peak concentration. Given the importance of the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin for the mixture's ecotoxicity it may be concluded that the fast mode of action of pyrethroids mainly explains this observation. Moreover, field relevant concentrations of the pesticide mixture applied at an exposure duration of 120min resulted in reduced gammarids' feeding rate, which may be indicative for shifts in the ecosystem function of leaf litter breakdown and hence the provision of energy for local and downstream communities. Finally, the present study indicated that both pathways of exposure, namely via food or water, reduce gammarids' feeding rate synergistically. This suggests that both exposure pathways should be considered for compounds exhibiting a high Kₒw (e.g. pyrethroids) during the risk assessment of single substances and mixtures. ; p. 137-143.
    Keywords: Exposure Duration ; Gammarus Fossarum ; Herbicides ; Ecosystems ; Fungicides ; Lambda-Cyhalothrin ; Plant Litter ; Pesticide Mixtures ; Ecotoxicology ; Exposure Pathways ; Sublethal Effects ; Risk Assessment ; Mechanism Of Action ; Pyrethrins ; Energy
    ISSN: 0147-6513
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Jan, 2015, Vol.111, p.263(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.09.031 Byline: Frank Seitz, Ricki R. Rosenfeldt, Katharina Storm, George Metreveli, Gabriele E. Schaumann, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh Abstract: Studies assessing the acute and chronic toxicity of silver nanoparticle (nAg) materials rarely consider potential implications of environmental variables. In order to increase our understanding in this respect, we investigated the acute and chronic effects of various nAg materials on Daphnia magna. Thereby, different nanoparticle size classes with a citrate coating (20-, ~30-, 60- as well as 100-nm nAg) and one size class without any coating (140nm) were tested, considering at the same time two pH levels (6.5 and 8.0) as well as the absence or presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM; 〈0.1 or 8.0mg total organic carbon/L). Results display a reduced toxicity of nAg in media with higher pH and the presence of DOM as well as increasing initial particle size, if similarly coated. This suggests that the associated fraction of Ag species 〈2nm (including Ag.sup.+) is driving the nAg toxicity. This hypothesis is supported by normalizing the 48-h EC.sub.50-values to Ag species 〈2nm, which displays comparable toxicity estimates for the majority of the nAg materials assessed. It may therefore be concluded that a combination of both the particle characteristics, i.e. its initial size and surface coating, and environmental factors trigger the toxicity of ion-releasing nanoparticles. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Ecotoxicology & Environment, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, 76829 Landau, Germany (b) Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, 76829 Landau, Germany (c) Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lennart Hjelms Vag 9, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden Article History: Received 10 July 2014; Revised 26 September 2014; Accepted 30 September 2014
    Keywords: Ph -- Analysis ; Toxicity -- Analysis ; Soil Chemistry -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0147-6513
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2009, Vol.72(4), pp.1058-1062
    Description: Pyriproxyfen a juvenile hormone analoga (JHA) was used in a two-generation test with (Diptera). The protocol is an extension of the OECD test methods to test duration from first-instar larvae in the parental (P) generation to emergence of midges in the filial (F1) generation. Test species were exposed to concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 mg/L. The results showed significant adverse effects compared to the solvent control for emergence rate ( 〈0.001), development rate ( 〈0.001), fecundity ( 〈0.05) and fertility of egg ropes but not for the sex ratio. No observed effect concentrations (NOEC), respectively, lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) values were lower for emergence rate and development rate in the F1 (0.003 mg/L, respectively, 0.01mg/L each) than in the P generation (0.01 mg/L, respectively, 0.03 mg/L). The two-generation test provided additional information, which might be useful in the risk assessment of agrochemicals with potential endocrine effects.
    Keywords: Pyriproxyfen ; Jha ; Insect Endocrine System ; Chironomus Riparius ; Two-Generation Test ; Agrochemicals ; Ecology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0147-6513
    E-ISSN: 1090-2414
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, June 2001, Vol.49(2), pp.171-178
    Description: The effects of the molting-hormone agonistic insecticide tebufenozide on larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius Meigen were tested in two different exposure setups. After static contamination of first-instar larvae the NOEC, LOEC, and LC sub(50) values were 13.2, 17.4, and 21.14 mu g-L, respectively. Semistatic exposure of fourth-instar larvae revealed a lower susceptibility of elder larvae (NOEC 30 mu g-L, LOEC 60 mu g-L, and LC sub(50) 81.94 mu g-L). In both cases mortality was not immediate; the effects were postponed and almost exclusively linked to the processes of pupation and emergence. Pupal mortality in the semistatic exposure scheme was twice as high in males as in females during a 100 mu g-L treatment. This sex-specific effect probably resulted from the endocrine activity of tebufenozide. Its detection underlines the suitability of C. riparius as a model organism for investigating effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in aquatic insects. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
    Keywords: Chironomus Riparius ; Tebufenozide ; Aquatic Invertebrate ; Pesticide ; Insect Growth Regulator ; Endocrine Disruption ; Sex Specificity ; Ecology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0147-6513
    E-ISSN: 1090-2414
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2005, Vol.62(2), pp.145-159
    Description: The prediction of runoff-related pesticide entry into surface waters on a landscape level usually requires considerable efforts with regard to input data, time, and personnel. Therefore, the need for an easy to use simulation tool with easily accessible input data, for example from already existing public sources, is obvious. In this paper, we present a simulation tool for the simulation of pesticide entry from arable land into adjacent streams. Our aim was to develop a tool applicable on the landscape level using “real world data” from numerous sites and for the simulation of parameter case studies concerning particular parameters at single sites. We used the ratio of exposure to toxicity (REXTOX) model proposed by the OECD, which had been successfully validated in the study area as part of a previous study and which was extended to calculate pesticide concentrations in adjacent streams. We simulated the pesticide entry on the landscape level at 737 sites in small streams situated in the central lowland of Germany with winter wheat, barley, and sugar beat as the main agricultural crops. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the most significant model parameters were the width of the no-application zone and the degree of plant interception. The simulation was carried out for the 15 most frequently detected substances found in the study area using eight different environmental scenarios, covering variation of the width of the no-application zone, climate, and seasonal scenarios. The highest in-stream concentrations were predicted for a scenario using no (0 m) buffer zone in conjunction with increased precipitation. According to the predicted concentrations, the risk for the aquatic communities was estimated based on standard toxicity tests and the application of a safety factor. The simulation results are presented both by means of risk maps for the study area showing the simulated pesticide concentration and the resulting ecological risk for numerous sites under varying scenarios and by case study diagrams with focus on the model behavior under the influence of single parameters. Risk maps confirmed the importance of no-application (buffer) zones for the levels of pesticide input. They also indicated the importance of the existing no-application zones for certain compounds and in some cases the need for a further evaluation of these regulations. The simulation tool was implemented as a standard PC software combining the REXTOX model with a geographical information system and can be used on any current personal computer. All input data was taken from public sources of German authorities. With little effort the tool should be applicable for other areas with similar data quality.
    Keywords: Risk Assessment ; Pesticides ; Runoff ; Buffer Zones ; Simulation ; Modeling ; Landscape Level ; Climate Change ; Risk Mitigation ; Ecology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0147-6513
    E-ISSN: 1090-2414
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