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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental biosafety research, 2007, Vol.6(1-2), pp.3-13
    Description: Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) refers to the acquisition of foreign genes by organisms. The occurrence of HGT among bacteria in the environment is assumed to have implications in the risk assessment of genetically modified bacteria which are released into the environment. First, introduced genetic sequences from a genetically modified bacterium could be transferred to indigenous micro-organisms and alter their genome and subsequently their ecological niche. Second, the genetically modified bacterium released into the environment might capture mobile genetic elements (MGE) from indigenous micro-organisms which could extend its ecological potential. Thus, for a risk assessment it is important to understand the extent of HGT and genome plasticity of bacteria in the environment. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge on HGT between bacteria as a crucial mechanism contributing to bacterial adaptability and diversity. In view of the use of GM crops and microbes in agricultural settings, in this mini-review we focus particularly on the presence and role of MGE in soil and plant-associated bacteria and the factors affecting gene transfer.
    Keywords: Gene Transfer, Horizontal ; Bacteria -- Genetics
    ISSN: 1635-7922
    E-ISSN: 16357930
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Environmental biosafety research, 2007, Vol.6(1-2), pp.91-9
    Description: Natural transformation is assumed to be the most likely mechanism by which DNA from transgenic plants could be horizontally transferred to bacteria. In order to determine the occurrence of naturally transformable bacteria amongst bulk and rhizosphere soil bacteria, different transformation strategies were employed using either plasmid DNA (IncQ plasmids pSM1890 and pSM1885, conferring GFP, Sm(r), Gm(r) and GFP, Sm(r), Tc(r), respectively) or genomic DNA from rhizosphere isolates, which were chromosomally tagged with mini-Tn5 (GFP, Tc(r)), as transforming DNA. Transformation assays were done in microtiter plates (262 isolates and pSM1890 or pSM1885), on filters (i) with rhizosphere bacterial community mixed with pSM1890 or pSM1885, (ii) with 24 rhizosphere or soil bacterial isolates mixed with genomic DNA of the corresponding mini-Tn5-tagged strains, and in the rhizosphere of tobacco plants inoculated with rifampicin-resistant bacterial isolates and genomic DNA of the corresponding mini-Tn5-tagged strains added. One transformant colony was obtained when Brevundimonas vesicularis was transformed with genomic DNA of the corresponding mini-Tn5-tagged strain. Attempts to reproduce this result were unsuccessful. With this single exception, transformants were neither detected in the collection of isolates nor in the rhizosphere bacterial community. Acinetobacter baylyi BD413 used as a positive control showed drastically reduced transformation frequencies with plasmid pSM1890 as transforming DNA when mixed with the rhizosphere pellet. All transformants were characterized by BOX-PCR fingerprints, and three different BOX patterns were revealed. Sequencing the 16S rRNA gene showed that all transformants could be assigned to Acinetobacter sp. Since transformants were only observed in the positive control, the introduced BD413 either underwent genomic rearrangements, or competence of the Acinetobacter population present in the rhizosphere was stimulated by the introduction of BD413. The various transformation assays performed indicate that the proportion of rhizosphere or bulk soil bacteria which are naturally transformable is negligibly low.
    Keywords: Plant Roots -- Microbiology ; Transformation, Bacterial -- Genetics
    ISSN: 1635-7922
    E-ISSN: 16357930
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Biosafety Research, 2007, Vol.6, pp.1-2
    Description: Without abstract
    Keywords: Environmental Sciences ; Biodiversity and Ecology ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology
    ISSN: 1635-7922
    E-ISSN: 1635-7930
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne Open Access (CCSd)
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