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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Earth Sciences, 2012, Vol.65(8), pp.2377-2389
    Description: For water management purposes, information about an entire aquifer system is generally more important than information about a specific spring. Since a karstic aquifer system might drain to several outlets, conclusions derived from a single spring can be misleading for characterization and modeling. In this study we apply a conceptual model to an Alpine dolomite karst system in Austria. The particular challenge was that several small springs with strongly varying hydrological behavior and diffuse flow into surrounding streams drain this system. Instead of applying the model to a single spring, it was calibrated simultaneously to several observations within the system aiming to identify the karst system’s intrinsic hydrodynamic parameters. Parameter identification is supported by modeling the transport of water isotopes (δ 18 O). The parameters were transferred to the whole system with a simple upscaling procedure and a sensitivity analysis was performed to unfold influence of isotopic information on parameter sensitivity and simulation uncertainty. The results show that it is possible to identify system intrinsic parameters. But the sensitivity analysis revealed that some are hardly identifiable. Only by considering uncertainty reasonable predictions can be provided for the whole system. Including isotopic information increases the sensitivity of some intrinsic parameters, but it goes along with a sensitivity decrease for others. However, a possible reduction of prediction uncertainty by isotopic information is compensated by deficiencies in the transport modeling routines.
    Keywords: Karst aquifer ; Karst modeling ; Water isotopes ; Solute transport modeling ; Upscaling ; Rainfall-runoff modeling
    ISSN: 1866-6280
    E-ISSN: 1866-6299
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Earth Sciences, 2016, Vol.75(21), pp.1-16
    Description: Heavy precipitation-induced flash floods are still a serious hazard and generate high damages. In the context of climate change, an increase of the occurrence of flash floods is very likely. To improve flash-flood predictions and allow measures to reduce damage in vulnerable catchments, the spatial dynamics of runoff generation at a high spatial resolution during extreme rainfall events need to be better predicted. The results of these models can then be included into hydraulic models to predict the surface water level and flow dynamics based on high-resolution topographic data. Long-term discharge data does generally not exist in the small headwaters mostly influenced by flash floods, which would allow to calibrate conventional rainfall-runoff models. But hydrological models predicting runoff generation processes without calibration based on available spatially distributed data sets are still lacking. Such a model [Runoff Generation Research (RoGeR)] was developed for the state of Baden-Württemberg. It is based on an extensive collection of spatial data, including a digital elevation model of 1 × 1 m 2 resolution, degree of sealing of the earth surface for the same resolution, and soil properties and geology at the scale of 1:50,000. Within the state of Baden-Württemberg, different regions were selected encompassing distinct environmental characteristics regarding climate, soil properties, land use, topography and geology. RoGeR was tested and validated by simulating 33 observed flood events in 13 mesoscale catchments without calibration and by modelling seven 60-m² artificial rainfall experiments on five different hillslopes in different regions of Switzerland. The results showed that the model was able to reproduce the temporal runoff dynamics as well as the peak discharge and the runoff volume in the mesoscale catchments as well as the 60-m² hillslope plots. The model could reproduce processes and hydrological response under different antecedent soil moisture and precipitation characteristics without any calibration, despite applying it to different regions and different scales. This suggests that RoGeR is predestinated to quantify runoff generation processes during heavy rainfall events at different scales without the typical model calibration procedure allowing to better quantify input and model uncertainty.
    Keywords: Runoff generation ; Uncalibrated model ; Infiltration ; Preferential flow ; Subsurface flow ; Flash floods
    ISSN: 1866-6280
    E-ISSN: 1866-6299
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Earth Sciences, 2017, Vol.76(16), pp.1-16
    Description: Germany does not only have a long tradition in water research, but a very active community of scientists and practitioners working on a vast range of “water topics.” This thematic issue, which was initiated by four water-related research associations (German Hydrological Society; German Limnological Society; Hydrological Sciences Commission within German Water Association; Working Group Hydrology within German Geographical Society), is a testimony of both the quality and diversity of the water research currently undertaken by Germany’s scientific community. Key topics include hydrology and hydromorphology; water quality; aquatic and riparian ecosystems; water in agriculture and forestry; and water management and supply. The manuscripts contained in this thematic issue do not only cover a period of more than two millennia, but also address all types of water resources and a multitude of both established and newly developed methods that help us to better understand the processes governing the hydrological cycle, aquatic ecosystems and the management and operation of various water infrastructures.
    Keywords: Risk Assessment ; Water Resource Management ; Forestry ; Green Technology ; Water Resources ; Aquatic Ecosystems ; Hydrology;
    ISSN: 1866-6280
    E-ISSN: 1866-6299
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