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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 2017, Vol.39(2), pp.331-344
    Description: Central European floodplain soils are often contaminated with potentially toxic metals. The prediction of their aqueous concentrations is a prerequisite for an assessment of environmental concerns. We tested the aqueous concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) derived from multi-surface adsorption modelling (on hydrous iron, aluminum and manganese oxides, clay and soil organic matter) against those analyzed in situ in the soil solution of four horizons of floodplain soils at the Elbe River, Germany. The input data for the reactive metals were derived from a seven-step sequential extraction scheme or from extraction with 0.43 M nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and evaluated in four modelling scenarios. In all scenarios, measured and modelled concentrations were positively related, except partially for Pb. Close reproduction of the measured data was obtained using measured data of accompanying cations and anions together with amounts of reactive metals from both the sequential extraction or from 0.43 M HNO 3 extraction, except for Cu, which was often strongly overestimated, and partially Cd. We recommend extraction with 0.43 M HNO 3 to quantify reactive metals in soil because the modelling results were metal-specific with better or equal results using the single extractant, the application of which is also less laborious. Approximations of ion concentrations and water contents yielded similar results. Modelled solid-phase speciation of metals varied with pH and differed from that from sequential extraction. Multi-surface modelling may be an effective tool to predict both aqueous concentrations and solid-phase speciation of metals in soil.
    Keywords: Multi-surface modelling ; Metals ; Soil contamination ; Sequential extraction ; Fluvisol
    ISSN: 0269-4042
    E-ISSN: 1573-2983
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 2017, Vol.39(6), pp.1291-1304
    Description: European floodplain soils are frequently contaminated with potentially toxic inorganic substances. We used a multi-surface model to estimate the aqueous concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in three Mollic Fluvisols from the Central Elbe River (Germany). The model considered complexation in solution and interactions with soil organic matter (SOM), a clay mineral and hydrous Al, Fe and Mn oxides. The amounts of reactive metals were derived from extraction with 0.43 M HNO 3 . Modelling was carried out as a function of pH (soil pH ± 1.4) because it varies in floodplain soils owing to redox processes that consume or release protons. The fraction of reactive metals, which were dissolved according to the modelling, was predominantly 〈1%. Depending on soil properties, especially pH and contents of SOM and minerals of the clay fraction, the modelled concentrations partially exceeded the trigger values for the soil–groundwater pathway of the German soil legislation. This differentiation by soil properties was given for Ni, Pb and Zn. On the other hand, Cd was more mobile, i.e., the trigger values were mostly exceeded. Copper represented the opposite, as the modelling did not predict exceeding the trigger values in any horizon. Except for Pb and partially Zn (where oxides were more important), SOM was the most important adsorbent for metals. However, given the special composition and dynamics of SOM in mollic horizons, we suggest further quantitative and qualitative investigations on SOM and on its interaction with metals to improve the prediction of contaminant dynamics.
    Keywords: Floodplain soil ; Metals ; Soil contamination ; Adsorption ; Multi-surface modelling
    ISSN: 0269-4042
    E-ISSN: 1573-2983
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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