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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, January 2011, Vol.159(1), pp.244-249
    Description: Climate change scenarios predict lower flow rates during summer that may lead to higher proportions of wastewater in small and medium sized streams. Moreover, micropollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals and other contaminants) continuously enter aquatic environments via treated wastewater. However, there is a paucity of knowledge, whether extended exposure to secondary treated wastewater disrupts important ecosystem functions, e.g. leaf breakdown. Therefore, the amphipod shredder was exposed to natural stream water (  = 34) and secondary treated wastewater (  = 32) for four weeks in a semi-static test system under laboratory conditions. exposed to wastewater showed significant reductions in feeding rate (25%), absolute consumption (35%), food assimilation (50%), dry weight (18%) and lipid content (22%). Thus, high proportions of wastewater in the stream flow may affect both the breakdown rates of leaf material and thus the availability of energy for the aquatic food web as well as the energy budget of . Micropollutants in wastewater cause functional and physiological alteration in a leaf-shredding amphipod.
    Keywords: Advanced Treatment Technology ; Ecological Functioning ; Gammarus Fossarum ; Leaf Litter Breakdown ; Wastewater ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, May 2018, Vol.236, pp.119-125
    Description: Systemic neonicotinoid insecticides such as imidacloprid are increasingly applied against insect pest infestations on forest trees. However, leaves falling from treated trees may reach nearby surface waters and potentially represent a neonicotinoid exposure source for aquatic invertebrates. Given imidacloprid's susceptibility towards photolysis and high water solubility, it was hypothesized that the leaves' toxicity might be modulated by UV-irradiation during decay on the forest floor, or by leaching and re-mobilization of the insecticide from leaves within the aquatic ecosystem. To test these hypotheses, the amphipod shredder was fed (over 7 d;  = 30) with imidacloprid-contaminated black alder ( ) leaves that had either been pre-treated (i.e., leached) in water for up to 7 d or UV-irradiated for 1 d (at intensities relevant during autumn in Central Europe) followed by a leaching duration of 1 d. Gammarids' feeding rate, serving as sublethal response variable, was reduced by up to 80% when consuming non-pretreated imidacloprid-contaminated leaves compared to imidacloprid-free leaves. Moreover, both leaching of imidacloprid from leaves (for 7 d) as well as UV-irradiation reduced the leaves' imidacloprid load (by 46 and 90%) thereby mitigating the effects on gammarids' feeding rate to levels comparable to the respective imidacloprid-free controls. Therefore, natural processes, such as UV-irradiation and re-mobilization of foliar insecticide residues in water, might be considered when evaluating the risks systemic insecticide applications in forests might pose for aquatic organisms in nearby streams. UV-irradiation and leaching in water reduce imidacloprid residues in contaminated leaves consequently mitigating toxicity for a leaf-shredding amphipod.
    Keywords: Neonicotinoids ; Imidacloprid ; Gammarus ; Leaf Fall ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, March 2017, Vol.222, pp.458-464
    Description: Leaf-shredding amphipods play a critical role in the ecosystem function of leaf litter breakdown, a key process in many low order streams. Fungicides, however, may adversely influence shredders' behavior and the functions they provide, while there is only limited knowledge concerning effects on their reproductive performance. To assess the latter, a semi-static 56-day partial life-cycle bioassay using the model shredder (  = 30) was performed applying two environmentally relevant concentrations of a model fungicide mixture (i.e., 5 and 25 μg/L) composed of five fungicides with different modes of toxic action. Variables related to the food processing (leaf consumption and feces production), growth (body length and dry weight), energy reserves (lipid content), and reproduction (amplexus pairs, number and length of offspring) were determined to understand potential implications in the organisms' energy budget. While the fungicides did not affect leaf consumption, both fungicide treatments significantly reduced amphipods' feces production (∼20%) compared to the control. This observation suggests an increased food utilization to counteract the elevated and stress-related energy demand: although growth as well as energy reserves were unaffected, amplexus pairs were less frequently observed in both fungicide treatments (∼50–100%) suggesting a tradeoff regarding energy allocation favoring the maintenance of fundamental functions at the organism level over reproduction. As a result, the time to release of first offspring was delayed in both fungicide treatments (7 and 14 days) and the median number of offspring was significantly lower in the 25-μg/L treatment (100%), whereas offspring length remained unaffected. The results of this study thus indicate that chronic fungicide exposures can negatively impact shredders' reproductive performance. This may translate into lower abundances and thus a reduced contribution to leaf litter breakdown in fungicide-impacted streams with potentially far-reaching consequences for detritus-based food webs. Chronic exposure to environmentally relevant fungicide concentrations can negatively impact leaf-shredders' reproductive performance.
    Keywords: Shredder ; Fungicide ; Mixture ; Energy Allocation ; Reproduction ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, December 2017, Vol.231, pp.1393-1397
    Description: Invertebrate-mediated leaf litter decomposition is frequently used to assess stress-related implications in stream ecosystem integrity. measures such as the mass loss from leaf bags or the feeding of caged invertebrates deployed for days or weeks may, however, fail to detect transient effects due to recovery or compensatory mechanisms. We assessed the relevance of transient effects using the peak exposure towards an insecticide (i.e., etofenprox) as a model scenario at three levels of complexity. These were 1) the assessment of the decomposition realised by invertebrate communities in stream mesocosms over 21 days via leaf bags, 2) 7-days lasting bioassays quantifying the leaf consumption of , and 3) a laboratory experiment determining the daily feeding rate of the same species over 7 days. Etofenprox did not trigger a significantly altered decomposition by invertebrate communities during the leaf bag assay, while bioassays detected a significant reduction in gammarids’ feeding rate at the highest tested concentration. The laboratory bioassay suggests that observed mismatches might be explained by recovery and post-exposure compensation. As leaf-shredding invertebrates are likely in a vulnerable state following transient effects, biomonitoring for implications of peak exposures and other pulsed stress events must happen at an adequate temporal resolution.
    Keywords: Compensatory Feeding ; Ecosystem Integrity ; Functional Response ; Insecticide Peak Exposure ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, October 2018, Vol.241, pp.549-556
    Description: Waterborne exposure towards fungicides is known to trigger negative effects in aquatic leaf-associated microbial decomposers and leaf-shredding macroinvertebrates. We expected similar effects when these organisms use leaf material from terrestrial plants that were treated with systemic fungicides as a food source since the fungicides may remain within the leaves when entering aquatic systems. To test this hypothesis, we treated black alder ( ) trees with a tap water control or a systemic fungicide mixture (azoxystrobin, cyprodinil, quinoxyfen, and tebuconazole) at two worst-case application rates. Leaves of these trees were used in an experiment targeting alterations in two functions provided by leaf-associated microorganisms, namely the decomposition and conditioning of leaf material. The latter was addressed via the food-choice response of the amphipod shredder . During a second experiment, the potential impact of long-term consumption of leaves from trees treated with systemic fungicides on was assessed. Systemic fungicide treatment altered the resource quality of the leaf material resulting in trends of increased fungal spore production and an altered community composition of leaf-associated fungi. These changes in turn caused a significant preference of for microbially conditioned leaves that had received the highest fungicide treatment over control leaves. This higher food quality ultimately resulted in a higher gammarid growth (up to 300% increase) during the long-term feeding assay. Although the underlying mechanisms still need to be addressed, the present study demonstrates a positive indirect response in aquatic organisms due to systemic pesticide application in a terrestrial system. As the effects from the introduction of plant material treated with systemic fungicides strongly differ from those mediated via other pathways (e.g., waterborne exposure), our study provides a novel perspective of fungicide-triggered effects in aquatic detritus-based food webs. Leaves from trees treated with systemic fungicides cause positive effects in an aquatic decomposer-detritivore system.
    Keywords: Aquatic Hyphomycetes ; Gammarus Fossarum ; Resource Quality ; Systemic Pesticides ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, 2015, Vol.205, pp.16-22
    Description: Copper (Cu) exposure can increase leaf-associated fungal biomass, an important food component for leaf-shredding macroinvertebrates. To test if this positive nutritional effect supports the physiological fitness of these animals and to assess its importance...
    Keywords: Other Biological Topics ; Annan Biologi
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 18736424
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