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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 06 May 2014, Vol.48(9), pp.5347-8
    Keywords: Models, Theoretical ; Fungicides, Industrial -- Analysis ; Water Pollutants, Chemical -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 2
    In: Environmental Science & Technology, Jan 15, 2001, Vol.35(2), p.422(5)
    Description: An artificial wetland area in Lourens River, South Africa is studied for its ability to control the movement of hydrophopic chemicals (mostly insecticides) from agricultural areas into surface water. A chemical evaluation of insecticides at the inlet and outlet of the wetlands is conducted, as well as an investigation of the mortality rate of midges at the inlet and outlet. Samples are graphed during the rainy and dry seasons, and at different times of the day.
    Keywords: Chemical Industry -- Research ; Pollution Control Industry -- Research ; Insecticides ; Water Pollution
    ISSN: 0013-936X
    E-ISSN: 15205851
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Science & Technology, 12/06/2016, Vol.50(23), pp.13171-13172
    ISSN: 0013-936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
    Source: American Chemical Society (via CrossRef)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 05 April 2016, Vol.50(7), pp.3721-8
    Description: Highly complex process-driven mechanistic fate and transport models and multimedia mass balance models can be used for the exposure prediction of pesticides in different environmental compartments. Generally, both types of models differ in spatial and temporal resolution. Process-driven mechanistic fate models are very complex, and calculations are time-intensive. This type of model is currently used within the European regulatory pesticide registration (FOCUS). Multimedia mass-balance models require fewer input parameters to calculate concentration ranges and the partitioning between different environmental media. In this study, we used the fugacity-based small-region model (SRM) to calculate predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) for 466 cases of insecticide field concentrations measured in European surface waters. We were able to show that the PECs of the multimedia model are more protective in comparison to FOCUS. In addition, our results show that the multimedia model results have a higher predictive power to simulate varying field concentrations at a higher level of field relevance. The adaptation of the model scenario to actual field conditions suggests that the performance of the SRM increases when worst-case conditions are replaced by real field data. Therefore, this study shows that a less complex modeling approach than that used in the regulatory risk assessment exhibits a higher level of protectiveness and predictiveness and that there is a need to develop and evaluate new ecologically relevant scenarios in the context of pesticide exposure modeling.
    Keywords: Models, Theoretical ; Insecticides -- Analysis ; Water Pollutants, Chemical -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 21 February 2012, Vol.46(4), pp.2169-78
    Description: The oxidation of the antiviral drug acyclovir (ACV) and its main biotransformation product carboxy-acyclovir (carboxy-ACV) by ozone was investigated. Both compounds have recently been detected in surface water, and carboxy-ACV has also been detected in drinking water. The experiments revealed a strong pH dependence of the oxidation of ACV and carboxy-ACV with reaction rate constants increasing by 4 orders of magnitude between the protonated, positively charged form (k(ox,PH(+)), ∼2.5 × 10(2) M(-1) s(-1)) and the deprotonated, negatively charged form (k(ox,P(-)), 3.4 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)). At pH 8 a single oxidation product was formed which was identified via LC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS and NMR as N-(4-carbamoyl-2-imino-5-oxoimidazolidin)formamido-N-methoxyacetic acid (COFA). Using Vibrio fischeri , an acute bacterial toxicity was found for COFA while carboxy-ACV revealed no toxic effects. Ozonation experiments with guanine and guanosine at pH 8 led to the formation of the respective 2-imino-5-oxoimidazolidines, confirming that guanine derivatives such as carboxy-ACV are undergoing the same reactions during ozonation. Furthermore, COFA was detected in finished drinking water of a German waterworks after ozonation and subsequent activated carbon treatment.
    Keywords: Water Purification ; Acyclovir -- Chemistry ; Antiviral Agents -- Chemistry ; Oxidants, Photochemical -- Chemistry ; Ozone -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 15 April 2011, Vol.45(8), pp.3774-80
    Description: Tertiary treatment methods, like ozonation, are currently under discussion to improve removal efficiencies of micropollutants by municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In order to assess the effects of a full-scale wastewater ozonation at WWTP Wüeri, Switzerland, on the receiving stream, a total of seven in situ bioassays with Gammarus fossarum that lasted 7-days were conducted during an overall period of 33 months. Caged gammarids were exposed between 150 m up- and 400 m downstream of a WWTP effluent before, during and following the operation of the full-scale wastewater ozonation. During the release of nonozone treated wastewater, gammarid feeding was significantly reduced by up to 90% 50 and 150 m downstream of the WWTP effluent. In contrast, during the operation period of the ozonation, no significant alterations in feeding were observed downstream. The results of these bioassays were incorporated into a mathematical simulation of the release of nonozone treated wastewater in a Central European region, suggesting a 40% reduction in leaf litter breakdown and hence in energy provision for the remaining aquatic food web downstream of WWTP effluents, while the release of ozone treated wastewater did not affect this important ecosystem function.
    Keywords: Ozone -- Chemistry ; Rivers -- Chemistry ; Waste Disposal, Fluid -- Methods ; Water Pollutants, Chemical -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 01 April 2011, Vol.45(7), pp.2761-9
    Description: The biotransformation of the two antiviral drugs, acyclovir (ACV) and penciclovir (PCV), was investigated in contact with activated sludge. Biodegradation kinetics were determined, and transformation products (TPs) were identified using Hybrid Linear Ion Trap- FT Mass Spectrometry (LTQ Orbitrap Velos) and 1D (1H NMR, 13C NMR) and 2D (1H,1H-COSY, 1H-(13)C-HSQC) NMR Spectroscopy. ACV and PCV rapidly dissipated in the activated sludge batch systems with half-lives of 5.3 and 3.4 h and first-order rate constants in relation to the amount of suspended solids (SS) of 4.9±0.1 L gss(-1) d(-1) and 7.6±0.3 L gss(-1) d(-1), respectively. For ACV only a single TP was found, whereas eight TPs were identified for PCV. Structural elucidation of TPs exhibited that transformation only took place at the side chain leaving the guanine moiety unaltered. The oxidation of the primary hydroxyl group in ACV resulted in the formation of carboxy-acyclovir (Carboxy-ACV). For PCV, transformation was more diverse with several enzymatic reactions taking place such as the oxidation of terminal hydroxyl groups and β-oxidation followed by acetate cleavage. Analysis of different environmental samples revealed the presence of Carboxy-ACV in surface and drinking water with concentrations up to 3200 ng L(-1) and 40 ng L(-1), respectively.
    Keywords: Acyclovir -- Analogs & Derivatives ; Antiviral Agents -- Metabolism ; Sewage -- Chemistry ; Waste Disposal, Fluid -- Methods
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 17 June 2014, Vol.48(12), pp.6965-72
    Description: Unintentionally released titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) may co-occur in aquatic environments together with other stressors, such as, metal ions. The effects of P25-nTiO2 on the toxicity and uptake of the elements silver (Ag), arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) were assessed by applying a factorial test design. The test design consisted of two developmental stages of Daphnia magna, two levels of nTiO2 (0 versus 2 mg/L) as well as seven nominal test concentrations of the respective element. The presence of nTiO2 increased Ag toxicity for juveniles as indicated by a 40% lower 72-h EC50, while the toxicities of As and Cu were reduced by up to 80%. This reduction was even more pronounced for Cu in the presence of dissolved organic carbon (i.e., seaweed extract) and nTiO2. This outcome coincides with the body burden of the elements, which was elevated 2-fold for Ag and decreased 14-fold for Cu in the presence of nTiO2. Although the underlying mechanisms could not be uncovered, the data suggest that the carrier function of nTiO2 plays a central role. However, to understand the processes and mechanisms occurring in the field due to the presence of nTiO2 further systematic investigations considering environmental variables and nanoparticle characteristics are required.
    Keywords: Toxicity Tests ; Daphnia -- Drug Effects ; Metals, Heavy -- Toxicity ; Nanoparticles -- Chemistry ; Titanium -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 19 March 2013, Vol.47(6), pp.3017-8
    Keywords: Models, Theoretical ; Insecticides -- Analysis ; Water Pollutants, Chemical -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 15 January 2013, Vol.47(2), pp.1179-80
    Keywords: Models, Theoretical ; Insecticides -- Analysis ; Water Pollutants, Chemical -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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