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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, June, 2013, Vol.32(6), p.1254(10)
    Description: Byline: Renja Bereswill, Martin Streloke, Ralf Schulz Abstract The European Union's directive for sustainable use of pesticides requires implementing risk mitigation measures at streams threatened by pesticide entries. The need for mitigation measures was investigated at 10 stream sites within an intensively used arable region in central Germany by characterizing pesticide exposure following edge-of-field runoff and effects on the aquatic macroinvertebrates. Moreover, the influence of riparian buffer strip width (as a mitigation measure) at the sampling sites was considered. Generally, invertebrate fauna was dominated by pesticide-tolerant species, suggesting a high pesticide exposure at almost all sites. This result is also reflected by the elevated levels of suspended particle contamination in terms of toxic units (logTU.sub.Max〉-2), corresponding to one-hundredth of the median lethal concentration (LC50) to Daphnia magna. At two sites that received high aqueous-phase entries of the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin (logTU.sub.Max〉-0.6), the abundance and number of sensitive species in terms of the species at risk index decreased during the pesticide application period. In contrast, no acute significant negative effects on macroinvertebrates were observed at sites characterised by low water-phase toxicity (logTU.sub.Max〈-3.5). An influence of riparian buffer strip width on pesticide exposure was not observed, supposedly because of the presence of erosion rills and ephemeral ditches. In conclusion, results show that mitigation measures (such as the improvement of currently present riparian buffer strips) are needed in the study area. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:1254-1263. A[c] 2013 SETAC Supporting information: Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article All Supplemental Data may be found in the online version of this article.
    Keywords: Pesticides -- Usage ; Runoff ; Endangered Species
    ISSN: 0730-7268
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, October 2012, Vol.31(10), pp.2384-2390
    Description: Traditional risk assessment guidelines employ acute or chronic toxicity tests for a maximum of one generation of organisms. These tests are usually performed in the laboratory at a constant standard temperature, although in the field organisms may experience different temperatures, which may be a source of additional stress. Climate change–related temperature shifts may have serious impacts on ectotherm populations that are key components of the aquatic food chains, particularly in combination with the exposure of pollutants affecting their development. Here, a chronic full life‐cycle test with from the first‐instar larvae in the parental (P) generation until emergence in the subsequent F1 generation was conducted at different temperatures (16 and 24°C), testing the effect of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen at 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 µg/L. The emergence ratios were significantly affected by the interaction of temperature, chemical treatment, and generation, showing that, at lower temperatures, the negative effects of pyriproxyfen exposure were significantly greater in the F1 generation than in the P generation. The development rate showed that the effects of the interactions were significant in the F1 generation, underscoring the importance of extended exposure as a useful amendment to the risk assessment of those agrochemicals potentially influencing developmental and reproductive parameters in intact organisms. Moreover, results demonstrated that any difference from the standard temperature of 20°C might result in additional stress, leading to disruption of biological functions in , highlighting the interaction among different global climate change‐related variables. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012; 31: 2384–2390. © 2012 SETAC
    Keywords: Full Life‐Cycle Test ; Interaction Effect ; Ectotherms ; Temperature Shift ; Organisms' Sensibility
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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  • 3
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, June 2013, Vol.32(6), pp.1254-1263
    Description: The European Union's directive for sustainable use of pesticides requires implementing risk mitigation measures at streams threatened by pesticide entries. The need for mitigation measures was investigated at 10 stream sites within an intensively used arable region in central Germany by characterizing pesticide exposure following edge-of-field runoff and effects on the aquatic macroinvertebrates. Moreover, the influence of riparian buffer strip width (as a mitigation measure) at the sampling sites was considered. Generally, invertebrate fauna was dominated by pesticide-tolerant species, suggesting a high pesticide exposure at almost all sites. This result is also reflected by the elevated levels of suspended particle contamination in terms of toxic units (logTUMax  〉 -2), corresponding to one-hundredth of the median lethal concentration (LC50) to Daphnia magna. At two sites that received high aqueous-phase entries of the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin (logTUMax  〉 -0.6), the abundance and number of sensitive species in terms of the species at risk index decreased during the pesticide application period. In contrast, no acute significant negative effects on macroinvertebrates were observed at sites characterised by low water-phase toxicity (logTUMax  〈 -3.5). An influence of riparian buffer strip width on pesticide exposure was not observed, supposedly because of the presence of erosion rills and ephemeral ditches. In conclusion, results show that mitigation measures (such as the improvement of currently present riparian buffer strips) are needed in the study area.
    Keywords: Pyrethroid Insecticides ; Edge‐Of‐Field Runoff ; Surface Water ; Macroinvertebrates ; Sediment
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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  • 4
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, April 2017, Vol.36(4), pp.1090-1100
    Description: Byline: Matthias V. Wieczorek, Nikita Bakanov, Laurent Lagadic, Eric Bruns, Ralf Schulz Abstract Interest in stream mesocosms has recently revived for higher tier aquatic macrophyte risk assessment of plant protection products mainly because 1) the highest predicted environmental concentrations for the assessment of effects are frequently derived from stream scenarios, and 2) they allow an effect assessment using stream-typical pulse exposures. Therefore, the present stream mesocosm study used an herbicide pulse exposure and evaluated the responses of Elodea canadensis and Myriophyllum spicatum. Macrophytes were exposed for 24h to 1I1/4g/L, 3I1/4g/L, 10I1/4g/L, and 30I1/4g/L of the herbicide iofensulfuron-sodium with a subsequent recovery period of 42d. Biological endpoints were growth rates of the main, side, and total shoot length, the shoot number, the maximum root length, and the dry weight. The total shoot length was identified as the most sensitive endpoint; the growth rate of the total shoot length was inhibited by up to 66% and 45% in M. spicatum and E. canadensis, respectively. The lowest no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) were observed at day 7 and/or day 14 after herbicide treatment and were 1I1/4g/L for M. spicatum and 3I1/4g/L for E. canadensis. The no-observed-ecologically-adverse-effect concentrations (NOEAECs) were 10I1/4g/L and 30I1/4g/L for M. spicatum and E. canadensis, respectively. Such or similar mesocosm designs are useful to simulate typical stream exposures and estimate herbicide effects on aquatic macrophytes in stream systems. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1090-1100. [c] 2016 SETAC Supporting information: Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article This article includes online-only Supplemental Data. CAPTION(S): Supporting Information.
    Keywords: Aquatic Plants ; Pesticide Risk Assessment ; Plant Toxicology ; Herbicide ; Toxic Effects
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, December 2011, Vol.30(12), pp.2718-2724
    Description: Leaf litter breakdown is a fundamental process in aquatic ecosystems that is realized by microbial decomposers and invertebrate detritivores. Although this process may be adversely affected by fungicides, among other factors, no test design exists to assess combined effects on such decomposer–detritivore systems. Hence, the present study assessed effects of the model fungicide tebuconazole (65 µg/L) on the conditioning of leaf material (by characterizing the associated microbial community) as well as the combined effects (i.e., direct toxicity and food quality‐related effects (=indirect)) on the energy processing of the leaf‐shredding amphipod using a five‐week semistatic test design. Gammarids exposed to tebuconazole produced significantly less feces (∼20%), which in turn significantly increased their assimilation (∼30%). Moreover, a significantly reduced lipid content (∼20%) indicated lower physiological fitness. The conditioning process was altered as well, which was indicated by a significantly reduced fungal biomass (∼40%) and sporulation (∼30%) associated with the leaf material. These results suggest that tebuconazole affects both components of the investigated decomposer‐detritivore system. However, adverse effects on the level of detritivores cannot be explicitly attributed to direct or indirect pathways. Nevertheless, as the endpoints assessed are directly related to leaf litter breakdown and associated energy transfer processes, the protectiveness of environmental risk assessment for this ecosystem function may be more realistically assessed in future studies by using this or comparable test designs. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2011;30:2718–2724. © 2011 SETAC
    Keywords: Combined Effects ; Environmental Risk Assessment ; Leaf Litter Breakdown ; Microbial Community ; Shredder
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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  • 6
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, October 2017, Vol.36(10), pp.2574-2580
    Description: Byline: Mirco Bundschuh, Ralf Schulz, Ralf B. Schafer, Craig R. Allen, David G. Angeler Abstract The term resilience describes stress-response patterns across scientific disciplines. In ecology, advances have been made to clearly define resilience based on underlying mechanistic assumptions. Engineering resilience (rebound) is used to describe the ability of organisms to recover from adverse conditions (disturbances), which is termed the rate of recovery. By contrast, the ecological resilience definition considers a systemic change, that is, when ecosystems reorganize into a new regime following disturbance. Under this new regime, structural and functional aspects change considerably relative to the previous regime, without recovery. In this context, resilience is an emergent property of complex systems. In the present study, we argue that both definitions and uses are appropriate in ecotoxicology, and although the differences are subtle, the implications and uses are profoundly different. We discuss resilience concepts in ecotoxicology, where the prevailing view of resilience is engineering resilience from chemical stress. Ecological resilience may also be useful for describing systemic ecological changes because of chemical stress. We present quantitative methods that allow ecotoxicologists and risk managers to assess whether an ecosystem faces an impending regime shift or whether it has already undergone such a shift. We contend that engineering and ecological resilience help to distinguish ecotoxicological responses to chemical stressors mechanistically and thus have implications for theory, policy, and application. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2574-2580. [c] 2017 SETAC
    Keywords: Engineering Resilience ; Ecological Resilience ; Ecosystem Response ; Communities ; Risk Assessment
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, March 2012, Vol.31(3), pp.518-523
    Description: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO) form reactive oxygen species (ROS) under irradiation by ultraviolet light (UV). This known photocatalytic activity may finally affect the presence and toxicity of organic environmental chemicals, which have not yet been studied at ambient UV intensity. The authors used a three‐factorial design to evaluate the interaction of the carbamate insecticide pirimicarb (initial nominal concentration, 20 µg/L), ambient UV irradiation (40 W/m for 15 min), and nTiO (∼100 nm; 2.0 mg/L). Pirimicarb, pirimicarb × UV, and pirimicarb × nTiO treatments revealed a median immobilization of after 72 h ranging between 70 and 80%. This effect seemed to be caused by the initial nominal pirimicarb concentration. However, UV irradiation before an exposure of daphnids in the presence of 2.0 mg nTiO/L reduced pirimicarb concentrations to values below the limit of quantification, likely because of the formation of ROS. This reduction was associated with an almost complete removal of toxicity for . Furthermore, during a second experiment, 0.2 mg nTiO/L in combination with 15 min UV irradiation reduced pirimicarb concentrations by approximately 30%. These results indicate a detoxification and therefore remediation potential of the combined application of nTiO and UV irradiation at ambient levels. This potential has not been documented to date in surface waters, where nTiO concentrations in the low to medium µg/L range may occur. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012;31:518–523. © 2011 SETAC
    Keywords: Ultraviolet Light ; Detoxification ; Photocatalysis ; Micropollutants ; Crustacea
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, May 2003, Vol.22(5), pp.1172-1176
    Description: In situ testing represents an alternative to conventional laboratory toxicity testing of field samples. Juvenile (Crustacea: Amphipoda) were exposed in situ in two rivers downstream of fruit orchard areas in the Western Cape, South Africa. Exposure took place during six time intervals (3–7 d), of which three represented the first rainfall‐induced edge‐of‐field runoff events of the wet season, which was about two months after the last pesticide application. Survival rates were significantly reduced (35–70%) during runoff events 1 and 2 at both sites. No difference was observed from the respective no‐runoff survival rate (〉90%) during event 3. Peak levels of total insecticides (azinphosmethyl, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and prothiofos) in samples taken with water level‐triggered samplers during the runoff events were between 0.03 and 0.26 μg/L in filtered water and between 305 and 870 μg/kg in suspended particles during runoff events 1 and 2 and only up to 0.01 μg/L and 101 μg/kg during event 3. Total suspended solids (TSS) varied between 400 and 700 mg/L during all three runoff events but never exceeded 65 mg/L during no‐runoff time intervals. A laboratory experiment revealed that uncontaminated TSS levels of 1,500 mg/L during a 7‐d exposure caused insignificant mortality (〈2.5%) in No acute toxicity was observed in standard 48‐h toxicity tests with juvenile using the filtered water samples taken during runoff and no‐runoff conditions. It is concluded that the observed mortalities were caused by particle‐associated pesticides and that the present amphipod in situ bioassay represents a sound and sensitive tool to detect runoff‐related insecticide effects under field conditions.
    Keywords: Amphipod ; Field Study ; In Situ Testing ; Insecticides ; Runoff
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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  • 9
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, July 2016, Vol.35(7), pp.1766-1774
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/etc.3325/abstract Byline: Ricki R. Rosenfeldt, Frank Seitz, Ann-Cathrin Haigis, Johanna Hoger, Jochen P. Zubrod, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh Abstract Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO.sub.2-NPs) adsorb co-occurring heavy metals in surface waters, modulating their toxicity for freshwater invertebrates. The processes triggering this interaction may be influenced by several environmental parameters; however, their relative importance remains unclear. The present study assessed the implications of aging on the joint acute toxicity of copper (Cu) and TiO.sub.2-NPs for Daphnia magna over a duration of up to 72h. The influences of aging duration as well as ionic strength, pH, and presence of different qualities of organic matter during aging were assessed. The results indicated that the presence of TiO.sub.2-NPs often reduced the Cu-induced toxicity for daphnids after aging (albeit with varying extent), which was displayed by up to 3-fold higher EC50 (50% effective concentration) values compared to the absence of TiO.sub.2-NPs. Moreover, the Cu speciation, influenced by the ionic composition and the pH as well as the presence of organic additives in the medium, strongly modulated the processes during aging, with partly limited implications of the aging duration on the ecotoxicological response of D. magna. Nonetheless, the present study underpins the potential of TiO.sub.2-NPs to modify toxicity induced by heavy metals in freshwater ecosystems under various environmental conditions. This pattern, however, needs further verification using heavy metal ions with differing properties in combination with further environmental factors, such as ultraviolet irradiation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1766-1774. [c] 2015 SETAC Supporting information: Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article This article includes online-only Supplemental Data. CAPTION(S): Supporting Information.
    Keywords: Environmental Parameter ; Adsorption ; Mixture Toxicity ; Factorial Approach ; Crustacean
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, April 2009, Vol.28(4), pp.809-817
    Description: A field study was conducted at three different sites along the Lourens River (South Africa) to assess aquatic macroinvertebrate abundances and community structures in relation to seasonal changes in rainfall and particle‐associated organophosphorous (OP) insecticide contamination. Redundancy analysis indicated OP insecticide contamination (azinphos‐methyl and chlorpyrifos) as the only significant variable determining the community composition. Principal response curves indicated that the invertebrate community dynamics of the Lourens River at the most‐contaminated site, Lourens River 3 (38 ± 23.0 μg total OP/kg suspended particles), differed significantly from the less‐contaminated site, Lourens River 2 (8.0 ± 4.9 μg total OP/kg in suspended particles) during the dry season (October–December; pesticide application period), whereas no difference was found during the wet season (July–September). Ephemeroptera abundances increased significantly ( = 0.0021) at the control site, Lourens River 1, from the wet to dry season, whereas abundances significantly decreased ( = 0.0011) at Lourens River 3. Two‐by‐three factorial analysis of variance demonstrated a significant interaction of site and season for the three most abundant mayfly taxa, sp., sp., and sp., confirming a possible OP effect. Lourens River 3, however, differed significantly from the other two sites in flow, ‐phosphate, and algae growth, which may partly explain the lower abundance of sensitive species. Apart from the OP contamination, only flow velocities showed significant differences between the wet and dry season at some sites. In conclusion, the present study suggests that particle‐associated OPs affected community structure in the Lourens River at levels greater than 30 μg total OP/kg, whereas levels less then 10 μg total OP/kg yielded no significant effects.
    Keywords: Organophosphate Insecticides ; Ephemeroptera ; Leptophlebiidae ; Community Structure ; Multivariate Statistics
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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