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  • 1
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, July 2018, Vol.37(7), pp.1949-1955
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/etc.4127/abstract Byline: Alexander Feckler, Matthew Low, Jochen P. Zubrod,Mirco Bundschuh Abstract Bayesian methods and frequentist confidence intervals are proposed as an alternative approach in ecotoxicology, emphasizing effect sizes and associated (un)certainties to judge the biological relevance of effects instead of basing decisions on p values. These approaches show advantages over null hypothesis significance testing. In particular, Bayesian methods revealed more potential than frequentist counterparts, as the posterior distribution and its credible intervals can be directly interpreted as the probability of effect sizes. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:1949-1955. [c] 2018 SETAC Supporting information: Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article This article includes online-only Supplemental Data. CAPTION(S): Supporting Data S1.
    Keywords: Bayesian Statistics ; Confidence Interval ; Credible Interval ; Ecotoxicology ; Effect Size ; Fungicide
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, December 2011, Vol.30(12), pp.2718-2724
    Description: Leaf litter breakdown is a fundamental process in aquatic ecosystems that is realized by microbial decomposers and invertebrate detritivores. Although this process may be adversely affected by fungicides, among other factors, no test design exists to assess combined effects on such decomposer–detritivore systems. Hence, the present study assessed effects of the model fungicide tebuconazole (65 µg/L) on the conditioning of leaf material (by characterizing the associated microbial community) as well as the combined effects (i.e., direct toxicity and food quality‐related effects (=indirect)) on the energy processing of the leaf‐shredding amphipod using a five‐week semistatic test design. Gammarids exposed to tebuconazole produced significantly less feces (∼20%), which in turn significantly increased their assimilation (∼30%). Moreover, a significantly reduced lipid content (∼20%) indicated lower physiological fitness. The conditioning process was altered as well, which was indicated by a significantly reduced fungal biomass (∼40%) and sporulation (∼30%) associated with the leaf material. These results suggest that tebuconazole affects both components of the investigated decomposer‐detritivore system. However, adverse effects on the level of detritivores cannot be explicitly attributed to direct or indirect pathways. Nevertheless, as the endpoints assessed are directly related to leaf litter breakdown and associated energy transfer processes, the protectiveness of environmental risk assessment for this ecosystem function may be more realistically assessed in future studies by using this or comparable test designs. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2011;30:2718–2724. © 2011 SETAC
    Keywords: Combined Effects ; Environmental Risk Assessment ; Leaf Litter Breakdown ; Microbial Community ; Shredder
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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  • 3
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, July 2016, Vol.35(7), pp.1766-1774
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/etc.3325/abstract Byline: Ricki R. Rosenfeldt, Frank Seitz, Ann-Cathrin Haigis, Johanna Hoger, Jochen P. Zubrod, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh Abstract Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO.sub.2-NPs) adsorb co-occurring heavy metals in surface waters, modulating their toxicity for freshwater invertebrates. The processes triggering this interaction may be influenced by several environmental parameters; however, their relative importance remains unclear. The present study assessed the implications of aging on the joint acute toxicity of copper (Cu) and TiO.sub.2-NPs for Daphnia magna over a duration of up to 72h. The influences of aging duration as well as ionic strength, pH, and presence of different qualities of organic matter during aging were assessed. The results indicated that the presence of TiO.sub.2-NPs often reduced the Cu-induced toxicity for daphnids after aging (albeit with varying extent), which was displayed by up to 3-fold higher EC50 (50% effective concentration) values compared to the absence of TiO.sub.2-NPs. Moreover, the Cu speciation, influenced by the ionic composition and the pH as well as the presence of organic additives in the medium, strongly modulated the processes during aging, with partly limited implications of the aging duration on the ecotoxicological response of D. magna. Nonetheless, the present study underpins the potential of TiO.sub.2-NPs to modify toxicity induced by heavy metals in freshwater ecosystems under various environmental conditions. This pattern, however, needs further verification using heavy metal ions with differing properties in combination with further environmental factors, such as ultraviolet irradiation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1766-1774. [c] 2015 SETAC Supporting information: Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article This article includes online-only Supplemental Data. CAPTION(S): Supporting Information.
    Keywords: Environmental Parameter ; Adsorption ; Mixture Toxicity ; Factorial Approach ; Crustacean
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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  • 4
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, August 2017, Vol.36(8), pp.2178-2189
    Description: Byline: Jochen P. Zubrod, Dominic Englert, Jakob Wolfram, Ricki R. Rosenfeldt, Alexander Feckler, Rebecca Bundschuh, Frank Seitz, Marco Konschak, Patrick Baudy, Simon Luderwald, Patrick Fink, Andreas Lorke, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh Abstract Leaf litter is a major source of carbon and energy for stream food webs, while both leaf-decomposing microorganisms and macroinvertebrate leaf shredders can be affected by fungicides. Despite the potential for season-long fungicide exposure for these organisms, however, such chronic exposures have not yet been considered. Using an artificial stream facility, effects of a chronic (lasting up to 8 wk) exposure to a mixture of 5 fungicides (sum concentration 20I1/4g/L) on leaf-associated microorganisms and the key leaf shredder Gammarus fossarum were therefore assessed. While bacterial density and microorganism-mediated leaf decomposition remained unaltered, fungicide exposure reduced fungal biomass ([less than or equal to]71%) on leaves from day 28 onward. Gammarids responded to the combined stress from consumption of fungicide-affected leaves and waterborne exposure with a reduced abundance ([less than or equal to]18%), which triggered reductions in final population biomass (18%) and in the number of precopula pairs ([less than or equal to]22%) but could not fully explain the decreased leaf consumption (19%), lipid content ([less than or equal to]43%; going along with an altered composition of fatty acids), and juvenile production (35%). In contrast, fine particulate organic matter production and stream respiration were unaffected. Our results imply that long-term exposure of leaf-associated fungi and shredders toward fungicides may result in detrimental implications in stream food webs and impairments of detrital material fluxes. These findings render it important to understand decomposer communities' long-term adaptational capabilities to ensure that functional integrity is safeguarded. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2178-2189. [c] 2017 SETAC Supporting information: Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article This article includes online-only Supplemental Data. CAPTION(S): Supporting Data.
    Keywords: Aquatic Hyphomycetes ; Chronic Exposure ; Gammarus Fossarum ; Leaf Litter Breakdown ; Population Development
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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