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  • 1
    In: European Journal of Neuroscience, December 2018, Vol.48(12), pp.3583-3596
    Description: Synchronous spiking of multiple neurons is a key phenomenon in normal brain function and pathologies. Recently, approaches to record spikes from the intact cortical surface using small high‐density arrays of microelectrodes have been reported. It remained unaddressed how epicortical spiking relates to intracortical unit activity. We introduced a mesoscale approach using an array of 64 electrodes with intermediate diameter (250 μm) and combined large‐coverage epicortical recordings in ferrets with intracortical recordings via laminar probes. Empirical data and modelling strongly suggest that our epicortical electrodes selectively captured synchronized spiking of neurons in the cortex beneath. As a result, responses to sensory stimulation were more robust and less noisy compared to intracortical activity, and receptive field properties were well preserved in epicortical recordings. This should promote insights into assembly‐coding beyond the informative value of subdural EEG or single‐unit spiking, and be advantageous to real‐time applications in brain‐machine interfacing. We have compared spiking activity in simultaneous recordings from layers and the intact surface (ECoG) of sensory cortices in the ferret brain. Surface spiking reflected the truly representative activity of the cortical column, i.e. spikes fired in synchrony by several units. We show that this can sharpen tuning, reduce response variability and thus make single trial surface spiking data as informative as post hoc analyzed multi trial or population data from intracortical multi site recordings.
    Keywords: Assembly‐Coding ; Auditory Cortex ; Brain‐Machine Interfaces ; Electrocorticography ; Synchronous Spiking ; Visual Cortex
    ISSN: 0953-816X
    E-ISSN: 1460-9568
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  • 2
    In: European Journal of Neuroscience, May 2015, Vol.41(10), pp.1311-1320
    Description: The integration of visual and auditory spatial information is important for building an accurate perception of the external world, but the fundamental mechanisms governing such audiovisual interaction have only partially been resolved. The earliest interface between auditory and visual processing pathways is in the midbrain, where the superior () and inferior colliculi () are reciprocally connected in an audiovisual loop. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of audiovisual interaction in the midbrain by recording neural signals from the and simultaneously in anesthetized ferrets. Visual stimuli reliably produced band‐limited phase locking of local field potentials (s) in two distinct frequency bands: 6–10 and 15–30 Hz. These visual responses co‐localized with robust auditory responses that were characteristic of the . Imaginary coherence analysis confirmed that visual responses in the were not volume‐conducted signals from the neighboring . Visual responses in the occurred later than retinally driven superficial layers and earlier than deep layers that receive indirect visual inputs, suggesting that retinal inputs do not drive visually evoked responses in the . In addition, and recording sites with overlapping visual spatial receptive fields displayed stronger functional connectivity than sites with separate receptive fields, indicating that visual spatial maps are aligned across both midbrain structures. Reciprocal coupling between the and therefore probably serves the dynamic integration of visual and auditory representations of space. The earliest interface between auditory and visual processing pathways is in the midbrain, where the superior (SC) and inferior colliculi (IC) are reciprocally connected in an audiovisual loop. Here, we show that visual stimuli elicit phase locking in IC local field potentials, and that the timing of responses across the midbrain suggests the SC as a possible source of visually‐evoked entrainment in the IC.
    Keywords: Auditory ; Ferret ; Local Field Potential ; Midbrain ; Visual
    ISSN: 0953-816X
    E-ISSN: 1460-9568
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Neuroscience, May, 2015, Vol.41(10), p.1311(10)
    ISSN: 0953-816X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Neuroscience, 2015, Vol.41(10), p.1311(10)
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ejn.12847/abstract Byline: Iain Stitt, Edgar Galindo-Leon, Florian Pieper, Karl J. Hollensteiner, Gerhard Engler, Andreas K. Engel Keywords: auditory; ferret; local field potential; midbrain; visual Abstract The integration of visual and auditory spatial information is important for building an accurate perception of the external world, but the fundamental mechanisms governing such audiovisual interaction have only partially been resolved. The earliest interface between auditory and visual processing pathways is in the midbrain, where the superior (SC) and inferior colliculi (IC) are reciprocally connected in an audiovisual loop. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of audiovisual interaction in the midbrain by recording neural signals from the SC and IC simultaneously in anesthetized ferrets. Visual stimuli reliably produced band-limited phase locking of IC local field potentials (LFPs) in two distinct frequency bands: 6-10 and 15-30 Hz. These visual LFP responses co-localized with robust auditory responses that were characteristic of the IC. Imaginary coherence analysis confirmed that visual responses in the IC were not volume-conducted signals from the neighboring SC. Visual responses in the IC occurred later than retinally driven superficial SC layers and earlier than deep SC layers that receive indirect visual inputs, suggesting that retinal inputs do not drive visually evoked responses in the IC. In addition, SC and IC recording sites with overlapping visual spatial receptive fields displayed stronger functional connectivity than sites with separate receptive fields, indicating that visual spatial maps are aligned across both midbrain structures. Reciprocal coupling between the IC and SC therefore probably serves the dynamic integration of visual and auditory representations of space.
    ISSN: 0953-816X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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  • 5
    In: European Journal of Neuroscience, January 2007, Vol.25(1), pp.81-86
    Description: Glycogen synthase kinase‐3 (GSK‐3) is a serine/threonine kinase regulating diverse cellular functions including metabolism, transcription and cell survival. Numerous intracellular signalling pathways converge on GSK‐3 and regulate its activity via inhibitory serine‐phosphorylation. Recently, GSK‐3 has been involved in learning and memory and in neurodegeneration. Here, we present evidence that implicates GSK‐3 in synaptic plasticity. We show that phosphorylation at the inhibitory Ser9 site on GSK‐3β is increased upon induction of long‐term potentiation (LTP) in both hippocampal subregions CA1 and the dentate gyrus (DG) . The increase in inhibitory GSK‐3β phosphorylation is robust and persists for at least one hour postinduction. Furthermore, we find that LTP is impaired in transgenic mice conditionally overexpressing GSK‐3β. The LTP deficits can be attenuated/rescued by chronic treatment with lithium, a GSK‐3 inhibitor. These results suggest that the inhibition of GSK‐3 facilitates the induction of LTP and this might explain some of the negative effects of GSK‐3 on learning and memory. It follows that this role of GSK‐3β in LTP might underlie some of the cognitive dysfunction in diseases where GSK‐3 dysfunction has been implicated, including Alzheimer's and other dementias.
    Keywords: Alzheimer'S Disease ; Gsk‐3 ; Mice ; Notch ; Wnt
    ISSN: 0953-816X
    E-ISSN: 1460-9568
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