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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: European Urology Supplements, August 2012, Vol.11(3), pp.52-59
    Description: Significant advances in molecular medicine have made renal cell carcinoma (RCC) the prototype solid organ malignancy for targeted medical cancer treatment. Theseis new options have made it possible to prolong the life of patients with metastatic disease. However, we are far away from thoroughly understanding the molecular processes of RCC development let alone from being able to cure advanced renal cancer. RCC is the most common renal neoplasia and it remains a very aggressive and often fatal disease. There are several known histologic subtypes of this heterogeneous tumor entity with associated distinct molecular alterations and different clinical outcomes . The clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common and apparently most aggressive RCC subtype with the highest rates of local invasion, metastasis and mortality. It constitutes 70–80% of all renal cancers . It is estimated that more than 30% of patients with RCC have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis and 30% of organ-confined RCCs will develop metastatic disease after local treatment . Thus, RCC remains a very major challenge. Renal cancer has an increased incidence while mortality remains stable. Advances in molecular characterization of renal cancer have led to a better understanding of the pathogenesis which yet has to translate into improved survival.
    Keywords: Renal Cancer ; Etiology ; Vhl Gene ; Hypermethylation ; Folliculin ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1569-9056
    E-ISSN: 1878-1500
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: European Urology Supplements, 2009, Vol.8(6), pp.490-495
    Description: We have a number of clinical points which we can use to assess whether or not a man with symptoms suffers from benign prostatic enlargement and/or bladder outlet obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. These clinical points are lower urinary tract symptoms, digital rectal examination, ultrasound of the prostate and bladder (measuring prostate volume and bladder wall thickness), flow rates, residual urine, and pressure–flow studies. The diagnosis of symptomatic BPE and the decision of whether or not specific treatment is advisable will be based on the combination of several of these examinations, of which some are more important than others. International Prostate Symptom Score, digital rectal examination, urinalysis, measurement of flow rate, and measurement of residual urine volume by ultrasound provide indispensable data for the daily assessment of a man with lower urinary tract symptoms who is suspected of having benign prostatic enlargement which requires treatment.
    Keywords: International Prostate Symptom Score ; Uroflowmetry ; Residual Urine Volume ; Pressure–Flow Study ; Bladder Wall Thickness ; Prostate Specific Antigen ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1569-9056
    E-ISSN: 1878-1500
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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