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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Forest Research, 2005, Vol.124(4), pp.261-271
    Description: Based on the results of the atmospheric deposition classification of the year 1989, a methodical approach should be introduced, which—based on the modelled total deposition rates—enables us to characterise the input situation of forest monitoring plots and to delimit load areas in Germany. In 1989, the deposition situation in nearly 1,800 forest monitoring sites (BZE/extensive Soil Condition Inventory) in Germany could be explained by four factors (or three, excluding sea salt impact) with the help of a factor analysis. The factor values were grouped into six deposition types with typical compounds and regional patterns. The classified input rates of the soil inventory plots adequately represent the stress situation and deposition changes in Germany. The application of the statistical approach on the level of Brandenburg clarifies the special local input situation. Due to the special combination of deposed elements, the sources of emissions can be characterised as well. When the soil inventory is repeated, a project planned for 2006, this approach can be used in order to determine homogenous areas for stratified data evaluation.
    Keywords: Atmospheric deposition ; Emissions ; Multivariate statistics ; Germany ; Brandenburg ; Forest ; Monitoring
    ISSN: 1612-4669
    E-ISSN: 1612-4677
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Forest Research, 2009, Vol.128(5), pp.483-492
    Description: In this study, the supply and input–output balances of phosphorus (P) were investigated for a 10-year-period at 85 long-term monitoring sites in German forest ecosystems under the European Level II programme. These sites encompass 23 European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) stands, 9 oak stands comprised of common oak ( Quercus robur L.) and/or sessile oak ( Quercus petraea Liebl.), 20 Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) and 33 Norway spruce ( Picea abies H.Karst.) stands. We quantified P concentrations in needles and leaves, P inputs from the atmosphere, P outputs through leaching and harvesting, and total P in the soil and humus layers. The P concentrations in European beech leaves from two sites (〉1 mg P g −1 dry weight), and in Norway spruce needles from four sites (〉1.2 mg P g −1 dry weight), were deficient over several years. In contrast, the oak and Scots pine sites were well supplied with P. When P removal through harvesting was disregarded, P balances were positive or stable (median 0.21 kg P ha −1  a −1 ). With harvesting, balances were mostly negative (median −0.35 kg P ha −1  a −1 ), with long-term P removal from the forest ecosystems.
    Keywords: Input–output balance ; Phosphorus ; Forest ecosystems ; Nutrient supply ; N:P ratio ; Level II sites
    ISSN: 1612-4669
    E-ISSN: 1612-4677
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Forest Research, 2005, Vol.124(4), pp.251-260
    Description: In the 1970s unexpected forest damages, called “new type of forest damage” or “forest decline”, were observed in Germany and other European countries. The Federal Republic of Germany and the German Federal States implemented a forest monitoring system in the early 1980s, in order to monitor and assess the forest condition. Due to the growing public awareness of possible adverse effects of air pollution on forests, in 1985 the ICP Forests was launched under the convention on long-range transboundary air pollution (CLRTAP) of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN-ECE). The German experience in forest monitoring was a base for the implementation of the European monitoring system. In 2001 the interdisciplinary case study “concept and feasibility study for the integrated evaluation of environmental monitoring data in forests”, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, concentrated on in-depths evaluations of the German data of forest monitoring. The objectives of the study were: (a) a reliable assessment of the vitality and functioning of forest ecosystems, (b) the identification and quantification of factors influencing forest vitality, and (c) the clarification of cause-effect-relationships leading to leaf/needle loss. For these purposes additional data from external sources were acquired: climate and deposition, for selected level I plots tree growth data, as well as data on groundwater quality. The results show that in particular time series analysis (crown condition, tree growth, and tree ring analysis), in combination with climate and deposition are valuable and informative, as well as integrated evaluation of soil, tree nutrition and crown condition data. Methods to combine information from the extensive and the intensive monitoring, and to transfer process information to the large scale should be elaborated in future.
    Keywords: Environmental monitoring ; Data management ; Forest growth ; Critical loads ; Regionalization ; Integrated evaluation ; Modelling ; Forest vitality ; Crown condition
    ISSN: 1612-4669
    E-ISSN: 1612-4677
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