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  • Food Chemistry
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 15 April 2013, Vol.137(1-4), pp.62-67
    Description: ► Higher level of sitosterol was found to limit polymerization in frying oils. ► A corresponding increase in the extent of TG ester hydrolysis was observed. ► Conjugation in steradienes may be responsible for the antioxidative effect. ► Atmospheric moisture may catalyze the conversion of sterol to steradiene. ► Sitosterol was found was more potent than sitostanol in limiting TG polymerization. The antioxidative effect of sitosterol at 1, 2 and 5% levels, in triolein, refined canola, high oleic sunflower and flaxseed oils, continuously heated for a period of up to 72 h at frying temperature of 180 °C, was studied. High Pressure Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) was used to monitor changes in peak areas of triacylglycerol (TG) polymer, monomer and ester hydrolysis products. The presence of enhanced levels of sitosterol was found to significantly decrease TG polymer formation in triolein and the vegetable oil samples after heating at 180 °C for a period of 72 h. A corresponding increase in the level of intact TG monomer and the extent of TG ester hydrolysis was observed in all samples with enhanced levels of sitosterol. Conversion of sterol to steradiene, by the 1, 2 elimination of water, may be responsible for the antioxidative effect of sitosterol at frying temperatures.
    Keywords: Vegetable Oils ; Frying ; Tg Polymer ; Sitosterol ; Steradiene ; Antioxidant ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 01 March 2012, Vol.131(1), pp.375-379
    Description: ► It is the first validated HPLC-PDA-MS method for quality assurance of mango ginger. ► Phytochemical used as reference compound is isolated from an Asian spice. ► Marker compound characterised as labda-8(17), 12-diene-15, 16-dial (LDD). ► LDD exhibits anti-tubercular activity. ► It describes the variability of LDD in samples of different locations. Mango ginger ( ) a spice of high usage in pickles, sauce, culinary formulations and traditional/folk systems of medicine for therapeutic actions in Asian countries. After establishing scheme for isolation and characterisation of labdane diterpene dialdehyde [labda-8(17), 12-diene-15, 16-dial]-an anti-tubercular agent, we developed a new validated HPLC-PDA method for its quantification in Chromatography was performed with reverse phase column in isocratic condition at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min using mobile phase of acidified water and acetonitrile. Specificity of determination was achieved with UV (190–400 nm) and mass spectrum. Good linearity was obtained with correlation coefficients 〉0.99. In the analytical range the precision and accuracy (RSD%) values were ⩽2%. Present validated method allowed both the identification and determination of labda-8(17), 12-diene-15, 16-dial, in rhizome. The method was applied to screen the labdane diterpene dialdehyde in the samples of different geographic locations.
    Keywords: Mango Ginger ; Spices ; Anti-Tubercular Agent ; Marker Compound ; Food Analysis ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 01 June 2013, Vol.138(2-3), pp.1400-1406
    Description: ► Defatting and heat treatments altered the antioxidant properties of oats. ► Oats can be incorporated to wheat flour up to 50% levels to prepare chapattis. ► Baking increased reducing power, metal chelating activity and browning index. ► A decrease in the total phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidant activity was observed. Oats were subjected to treatments like defatting, hydrothermal cooking and kilning, milled into flour and then the control and treated flours were incorporated into wheat flour at 25% and 50% levels and chapatti making behaviour and antioxidant properties were studied. The treatments significantly affected the antioxidant properties of oats. Incorporating oat flours to wheat increased total phenolic content but lowered the antioxidant activity however both were decreased significantly upon baking. The reducing power of the oat blended flour was higher than the wheat flours and ranged from 8.0 to 15.5 μmol AAE/g and was further increased upon baking. The metal chelating activity of flour blends varied from 62.0% to 73.8% and further increased upon baking. After baking the total flavonoid content was lowered and ranged from 308 to 389 μg CE/g. The non-enzymatic browning index significantly increased up to 27.6% upon baking.
    Keywords: Oats ; Defatting ; Kilning ; Antioxidant Properties ; Total Flavonoid Content ; Metal Chelating Activity ; Non-Enzymatic Browning ; Chapatti ; Total Phenolic Content ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, April 15, 2012, Vol.131(4), p.1406(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.10.009 Byline: Paras Sharma (a), Hardeep Singh Gujral (a), Baljeet Singh (b) Keywords: Barley; Extrusion; Total flavonoids content; Antioxidant activity; Metal chelating activity; Reducing power Abstract: a* Extrusion lowers the total phenolic and flavonoid content of barley. a* The metal chelating and overall antioxidant activity increased upon extrusion. a* The NEB index increased upon increase in extrusion temperature. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Food Science and Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, India (b) Department of Food Science and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India Article History: Received 8 February 2011; Revised 17 July 2011; Accepted 5 October 2011
    Keywords: Barley ; Isoflavones ; Antioxidants (Nutrients)
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, Jan 15, 2016, Vol.191, p.1
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.07.060 Byline: Jaspreet Singh, Lovedeep Kaur, Yukiharu Ogawa
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 15 May 2016, Vol.199, pp.176-184
    Description: Phytochemicals are health promoting compounds, synthesized by the plants to protect them against biotic or abiotic stress. The metabolic pathways leading to the synthesis of these phytochemicals are highly inducible; therefore methods could be developed to enhance their production by the exogenous application of chemical inducers/elicitors. In the present experiment, chitosan was used as an elicitor molecule to improve the phytochemical content of spinach plant. When applied at a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml as a foliar spray, chitosan was able to cause an increase in the enzymatic (peroxidase, catalase and phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL)) and non enzymatic (total phenolics, flavonoids and proteins) defensive metabolites, as well as, in the total antioxidant activity of the spinach leaves. A 1.7-fold increase in the total phenolics, a 2-fold increase in total flavonoid and a 1.6-fold increase in total protein were achieved with the treatment. A higher level of enzymatic activity was observed with a 4-fold increase in peroxidase and approximately 3-fold increases in catalase and phenylalanine ammonium lyase activity. Antioxidant activity showed a positive correlation between phenolic compounds and the enzymatic activity. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) was applied to generate the metabolite profile of control and treated leaves. DART analysis revealed the activation of phenylpropanoid pathway by chitosan molecule, targeting the synthesis of diverse classes of flavonoids and their glycosides. Important metabolites of stress response were also visible in the DART spectra, including proline and free sugars.
    Keywords: Phytochemicals ; Elicitor ; Chitosan ; Phenylpropanoid ; Flavonoids ; Dart-MS ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, Nov 1, 2014, Vol.162, p.1(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.04.043 Byline: Kritika Singh, Arvind M. Kayastha Abstract: acents Wheat [alpha]-amylase was purified to homogeneity and its identity confirmed by MALDI-TOF. acents Biochemical characterisation revealed resistance to SDS denaturation at low concentrations. acents High k.sub.cat objectifies wheat [alpha]-amylase for starch based and related industries. acents Chemical modification studies showed histidine presence at the enzyme's active site. Article History: Received 30 October 2013; Revised 28 March 2014; Accepted 11 April 2014
    Keywords: Wheat ; Amylases
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 15 October 2017, Vol.233, pp.540-549
    Description: Saponins are a class of natural compounds present in pulses having surface active properties. These compounds show variation in type, structure and composition of their aglycone moiety and oligosaccharide chains. Saponins have plasma cholesterol lowering effect in humans and are important in reducing the risk of many chronic diseases. Moreover, they have shown strong cytotoxic effects against cancer cell lines. However, more epidemiological and clinical studies are required for the proper validation of these health promoting activities. Processing and cooking promotes the loss of saponins from foods. The effect of soaking, sprouting and cooking on the stability and bioavailability of saponins in pulses is an important area which should be thoroughly worked out for achieving desirable health benefits. In the present review, the structures, contents and health benefits of saponins present in pulses are discussed. Moreover, the effect of processing (of pulses) on the saponins is also highlighted.
    Keywords: Pulses ; Saponins ; Bioactivity ; Processing ; Cooking ; Health Benefits ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 01 September 2016, Vol.206, pp.1-11
    Description: Banana is a very popular fruit in the world market and is consumed as staple food in many countries. It is grown worldwide and constitutes the fifth most important agricultural food crop in terms of world trade. It has been classified into the dessert or sweet bananas and the cooking bananas or plantains. It is either eaten raw or processed, and also as a functional ingredient in various food products. Banana contains several bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, biogenic amines and phytosterols, which are highly desirable in the diet as they exert many positive effects on human health and well-being. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the body against various oxidative stresses. In the past, bananas were effectively used in the treatment of various diseases, including reducing the risk of many chronic degenerative disorders. In the present review, historical background, cultivar classification, beneficial phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and health benefits of bananas are discussed.
    Keywords: Bananas ; Polyphenols ; Flavonoids ; Carotenoids ; Phytosterols ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 30 September 2018, Vol.261, pp.75-86
    Description: Pomegranate peel (PoP), a juice byproduct often considered as a waste, comprises nearly around 30–40% portion of the fruit. Phenolic compounds (one class of bioactive phytochemicals) are primarily concentrated in the peel portion of pomegranate fruit. In PoP, the main phenolic compounds reported in the literature include flavonoids (anthocyanins such as pelargonidin, delphinidin, cyanidin along with their derivatives and anthoxanthins such as catechin, epicatechin and quercetin), tannins (ellagitannins and ellagic acid derivatives such as punicalagin, punicalin and pedunculagin) and phenolic acids (such as chlorogenic, caffeic, syringic, sinapic, p-coumaric, ferulic, ellagic, gallic and cinnamic acid). It is generally accepted that phenolic compounds can be more efficiently recovered from PoP by improving the extraction efficiency. The curative relevance of these compounds has been mainly assessed by in vitro experimentation. Therefore, conclusive clinical trials of the phenolic compounds present in PoP are essential for correct validation of their health benefits.
    Keywords: Flavonoids ; Anthocyanins ; Tannins ; Phenolic Acids ; Health Benefits ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
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